ICSE Revision Notes for Agriculture in India- Food Crops Class 10 Geography

Chapter Name

Agriculture in India

Topics Covered

  • Types of Agriculture in India
  • Problems faced by Indian Agriculture
  • Green Revolution
  • Agriculture Crops and Seasons
  • Wheat: Climate, Cultivation and Soil
  • Millets: Climate, Cultivation and Soil
  • Agriculture in India: Cash Crops
  • Sugarcane: Climate, Cultivation and Soil
  • Oil Seeds: Climate, Cultivation and Soil
  • Cotton: Climate, Cultivation and Soil
  • Jute: Climate, Cultivation and Soil
  • Tea: Climate, Cultivation and Soil
  • Coffee: Climate, Cultivation and Soil
  • Rubber: Climate, Cultivation and Soil

Related Study

Types of Agriculture in India 

Agriculture plays an important role in the Indian economy in the following ways: 

  • It provides food for the ever increasing population of the country. 
  • It supplies raw materials for agro-based industries such as the textiles and food processing industries. 
  • It provides a market for industrial goods such as machinery and agricultural implements. 
  • It provides employment to millions of people.
  • It accounts for a large portion of India’s exports. 

Some types of agricultural farming in India are shifting agriculture, subsistence agriculture, intensive agriculture, extensive farming, plantation farming and mixed farming. 

1. Shifting Agriculture 

  • It is also known as ‘Slash and Burn Agriculture’ and ‘jhum’, ‘ponam’ or ‘podu’. It is a primitive method of cultivation. In this type of cultivation, a patch of forested land is cleared by felling and burning trees. The ashes of trees are mixed in the soil. 
  • After two to three years, when the soil loses its fertility, the land is left fallow, and a new patch of land is cleared for cultivation. 
  • Maize, potato, yam and cassava are grown in shifting cultivation. It is mainly practised in northeast India. 
  • Dry paddy, maize, millets and vegetables are commonly grown in this type of farming. This method of cultivation has some disadvantages. It results in deforestation, accelerates soil erosion and causes floods and silting. 

2. Subsistence Farming 

  • A majority of farmers in India practise subsistence farming. Land holdings in this type of farming are small, and farmers use traditional methods of agriculture. 
  • As farmers are poor, they do not use fertilisers and high-yielding seed varieties in their fields. 
  • The production is not very high. Food crops are mainly produced for consumption by the family. 

3. Intensive Farming 

  • This kind of cultivation is practised in areas with high density of population. 
  • It is a labour intensive system whereby fertilisers, high-yielding seed varieties and irrigation methods are used for increasing production. 
  • More than one crop is cultivated on the same field. 

4. Extensive Farming 

  • This kind of cultivation is practised where the size of the agricultural field is large and productivity is high. 
  • Machines are extensively used, and hence, the labour employed per unit area is low. ∙ Farmers specialise in the production of one or two major commercial crops.
  • Rice, wheat, maize and sugarcane are the main crops which are grown in extensive farming. Because the productivity is high, there is large surplus for sale.

5. Plantation Farming 

  • In plantation farming, single crops of tea, sugarcane, coffee, rubber, cotton and banana are grown on large fields. 
  • Large labour force and capital are required in plantations. 
  • Developed transport is required to transport these crops to factories for processing. 
  • Latest technology and modern methods of agriculture are used. In this kind of cultivation, crops are mainly exported to earn foreign exchange. 

6. Mixed Farming 

  • In mixed farming, two or more crops are grown together on a rotational basis. 
  • Apart from growing crops and fodder crops, animals are also reared. 
  • This type of cultivation ensures farmers with a steady income. 

7. Commercial Farming 

  • In this type of farming, crops are grown for commercial purposes, i.e. for selling in local and international markets. 
  • Wheat and maize are the main crops which are grown in commercial grain farming. 
  • Farming is mechanised and is prevalent in areas where farms are large and the market is strong. 
  • In India, this kind of farming is practised in Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, Western Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh. 

8. Dry Farming

  • It is practised in areas where irrigation facilities are not readily available. Crops which can stand dry weather such as jowar, bajra and ragi are mainly grown. 
  • The fields are repeatedly ploughed before and during rains to preserve soil moisture. 
  • This type of cultivation is practised in Western Rajasthan and in some parts of Deccan. 

Problems Faced by Indian Agriculture 

1. Environmental Factors 

  • Unreliable rainfall 
  • Lack of irrigation facilities 
  • Soil erosion 
  • Reduction in net sown area 

2. Institutional Factors 

  • Small and fragmented land holdings 
  • Exploitation of farmers 

3. Economic Factors 

  • Subsistence agriculture 
  • Challenges posed by globalisation 

4. Technological Factors 

  • Use of old and inefficient techniques by Indian farmers

Steps Taken to Improve Agricultural Production in India 

  • Introduction of various reforms such as the abolition of the Zamindari Act. 
  • Consolidation of fragmented land holdings 
  • Creation of irrigation infrastructure 
  • Announcement of minimum support prices 
  • Provision of subsidies to farmers for purchasing fertilisers and seeds 

Green Revolution 

Green Revolution is a term which is used to describe manifold increase in farm production in India.

Its main features are:

  • Use of large-scale capital and technological inputs 
  • Use of high-yielding seed varieties 
  • Use of chemical fertilisers and extensive irrigation facilities 
  • Adoption of modern scientific methods of farming 

Impact of the Green Revolution 

  • Owing to large production, the Green Revolution changed Indian agriculture from subsistence farming to commercial and market-oriented farming. 
  • Creation of more employment opportunities. 
  • Farmers were benefited by increased productivity leading to rural prosperity. 
  • It made India self-sufficient in food grains. 

However, the Green Revolution was criticised by environmental scientists because of land degradation caused by overuse of fertilisers and decease in soil fertility due to over irrigation. 

Agricultural Crops and Seasons 

There are two major agricultural crops in India which are rabi crops and kharif crops.

In India, there are three main types of cropping seasons. They are rabi, kharif and zaid.

Types of Cropping Seasons

Sowing Period

Harvesting Period

Main Crops or Fruits

Seasonal Conditions


Winter (October– December)

Summer (April–June)

Wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard

Rainfall during winter months in northern India because of western temperate cyclones helps in the growth of crops.


Beginning of the monsoon (July)


Rice, maize, jowar, groundnut, tur and cotton

Much needed moisture is provided by the monsoon rains in India.




Watermelon, cucumber, vegetables and fodder crops

These crops are grown between the rabi and kharif seasons. These require warm weather to grow.

However, it is to be noticed that this categorisation of the cropping season does not exist in southern India. 


It is the most important staple food crop of India. It is a kharif crop which is grown extensively in the northern plains, northeastern parts of the country, and coastal and deltaic regions. Rice requires high temperature above 20°C–35°C and high rainfall between 150 cm and 300 cm. During the earlier phase of its growth, the crop requires 5–10 cm of standing water. India is the second largest producer of rice in the world after China. 

The rice crop in India can be divided into upland and lowland rice. 

Upland Rice

Lowland Rice

It is mainly grown on mountainous regions.

It is mainly grown on low-lying regions.

It is sown in March–April and harvested in September–October.

It is sown in June and harvested in October.

The crop is mainly used for local consumption.

The crop is not only consumed locally but is also sold to other regions.

Soil: Rice requires fertile, clayey and loamy soil for cultivation. It grows well on alluvial soil which should be able to retain standing water in the field. Manure and fertilisers are added to increase production. 

Methods of Cultivation of Rice

Rice in India is cultivated by two methods—the dry method and the puddle method. 

  • The dry system of cultivation: It is mainly confined to regions which depend on rainfall and do not have sufficient irrigation facilities. In this method, seeds are scattered by hand in areas of moderate rainfall and are sown in rows with the help of drills in areas of heavy rainfall. 
  • Puddle or wet method of cultivation: It is practised in regions which have adequate supply of water. After ploughing, land is filled with 3–5 cm of water. 

The cultivation of rice is carried out by the following steps: 

  • Sowing of seeds 
  • Transplanting 
  • Harvesting 
  • Processing 

Sowing of Seeds of Rice

Seeds are sown by various methods. These are:

  • Broadcasting Method: In this method, seeds are scattered all over the field. This method is prevalent in regions where labour is scarce and the soil is infertile. 
  • Drilling Method: In this method, seeds are sown in furrows with the help of a drill usually made of bamboo. The germination of seeds is high as seeds fall into furrows systematically. This is however a time-consuming way to sow seeds. 
  • Dibbling Method: In this method, seeds are sown at regular intervals in furrows. 

Transplanting Method for Rice

  • In this method, seedlings from nurseries are transplanted into rice fields in groups of four to six at a distance of 30–45 cm. 
  • Initially, the field is covered with 2–3 cm of water. The level of water is then increased to 4–6 cm till the crop matures. 
  • This method is popular as it gives higher yield.

Japanese Method 

  • In this method, the seedlings are prepared in nurseries.
  • The rows of plants are then fixed at a distance of 25 cm, and the distance between the plants is about 15 cm. 
  • Manure is used extensively to increase yield. Plants give higher yield by this method. 

Harvesting and Processing of Rice

  • The rice fields are drained dry just before the crop is harvested. Each stalk is then hand reaped. 
  • The moisture content of the stalk is reduced by drying stalks in the Sun. 
  • In threshing, grains are separated from the stalks. It is done in the field to reduce the cost of transport. 
  • During winnowing, unwanted husk is removed from the grains by pouring them from a height. 
  • Milling is then done to remove yellowish husk from the grains. 

Distribution of Rice

India produces 22% of the total rice in the world. It is mainly grown in West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Bihar, Assam, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura and Tamil Nadu. 


It is the second most important crop in the country after rice. It is a rabi crop. India accounts for 12% of the total wheat production in the world. 

Climatic Conditions: Wheat requires a cool climate. It requires a temperature of 10–15°C during sowing and 20–25°C during harvesting. About 80 cm of rainfall is ideal for wheat cultivation. 

Soil: Well-drained loamy soil is suitable for the growth of wheat.

Methods of Cultivation of Wheat

  • Seeds are generally sown by the drilling and broadcasting methods. 
  • The wheat crop starts ripening in March and is harvested in April when the temperature is 27.5°C. 

Distribution of Wheat

  • Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh are five leading producers of wheat in the country. Wheat yield is extremely high in Punjab and Haryana. 
  • The yield of wheat is low in Madhya Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir as it is grown under rain-fed conditions. 


Climate required for the growth of millets:

Name of the Crop


Required Rainfall

Required Soil




It grows in arid and semi-arid regions receiving rainfall below 45 cm.

Red, grey and yellow loamy soils. It can also be grown in sandy soils.

Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat and Rajasthan



Low rainfall; it can be grown in regions receiving less than 50 cm of rainfall.

Red, sandy, loamy and black soils.

Rajasthan, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana



It is grown in regions receiving 50–100 cm of rainfall.

Red and sandy loamy soil and well drained alluvial soil.

Karnataka (leading producer), Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh


  • Pulses are an important part of the Indian diet as they provide vegetable protein. Some pulses are gram or arhar, urad, masur (lentil), moong (black gram) and matar (peas). 
  • Temperature ranging between 20°C and 25°C and rainfall between 50 cm and 75 cm are required for growing pulses. 
  • Pulses grow well in dry light soil.
  • Gram is the leading pulse and is sometimes grown along with wheat. While gram is raised as a rabi crop in regions receiving about 10 cm of rainfall, urad and moong are raised as kharif crops. 
  • Pulses are leguminous crops which increase the content of nitrogen in the soil, increasing its fertility. 
  • India is the largest producer and consumer of pulses in the world. Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh are the five leading states producing pulses.

Agriculture in India: Cash Crops

Cash Crops

Cash crops are agricultural crops which are grown primarily for direct sale in the markets. The main cash crops are categorised as 

  • Beverages: Tea and coffee 
  • Fibres: Cotton and jute 
  • Oilseeds: Groundnut and mustard seeds 
  • Others: Sugarcane, tobacco and rubber


It grows mainly in the tropical regions with a hard thick stem growing up to the height of 3.5 m or more. India has the largest area under sugarcane in the world. It is used for manufacturing sugar, gur and khandsari. India is the second largest producer of sugarcane in the world after Brazil.

Climatic Conditions and Soil required for Sugarcane

  • Sugarcane grows well in regions with temperatures between 20°C and 24°C. Dry winter is ideal for ripening and harvesting. 
  • Frost can severely damage the crop. 
  • Sugarcane grows well in tropical regions with rainfall of 100–150 cm distributed throughout the year. 
  • Dry sunny weather is essential during the ripening stage of the cane. 
  • Rich alluvial and lava soil are considered best for the growth of sugarcane. 

Methods of Cultivation of Sugarcane

  • Sowing: Sugarcane is planted by the following methods: 
  • Sett method: New canes are taken out from old plants. These cuttings of new plants known as ‘setts’ are planted and four to five stalks grow from each cutting.
  • Ratooning method: Sugarcane is harvested leaving a little stalk with the roots in the soil. Any crop obtained from the roots of the leftover crop is known as ratoon. Advantages of ratooning are that it saves labour as plants need not be planted again and it is a cheaper method as it does not involve any extra inputs. 
  • Sugarcane is also planted by seeds, but this method of sowing is hardly used. 

Harvesting of Sugarcane

It is harvested in northern India before the winters to save it from frost. 

The crop is cut by hand using a long carved knife. The stalk should be cut close to the ground as the greatest accumulation of sucrose is in the base of the stem. 

Processing of Sugarcane

After harvesting, the sugarcane has to be taken to the mill at the earliest. It is because the sucrose content starts decreasing after 24 hours of harvesting. In the mills, canes are crushed and boiled with lime to make raw sugar. It is reprocessed to make brown and white sugar. Only one-third of the sugarcane grown in the country is used for making sugar. The remaining two-thirds are used for making gur and khandsari. 

Distribution of Sugarcane

Three main areas of sugarcane distribution are

  • The Satluj Ganga Plain from Punjab to Bihar, regions of black soil from Maharashtra to Tamil Nadu and coastal Andhra Pradesh and the Krishna Valley.
  • Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh are leading producers of sugarcane in the world. Tamil Nadu is the largest producer of sugarcane in South India. 
  • Sugarcane has begun to be grown in South India as it has a favourable maritime climate free from the effects of summer loo and winter frost and has good irrigation facilities. 

Oil Seeds 

Groundnut, linseed, castor seed, sesame, soya bean, cotton seed, sunflower seed, rapeseed and mustard seed are some oil seeds which are grown in India. Groundnut is the leading oil seed in India. 

1. Groundnut

Groundnut contains about 42% of oil which is extracted from nuts found in the roots of plants. It is mainly used for the manufacturing of hydrogenated oil. It is used for making margarine, medical emulsions and soaps. While the oil of groundnut is used for cooking, its oil cake is used as cattle feed. The nuts are also eaten raw, roasted, salted and sweetened. 

Climatic Conditions required for Groundnut

  • Groundnut grows well in tropical and sub-tropical climate and can be damaged because of frost. While it is a rabi crop in Odisha and southern states, it is a kharif crop in the rest of India. 
  • It requires a temperature of 20°C to 25°C. 
  • The groundnut crop requires light to moderate rainfall of 50–100 cm which should be well distributed throughout the year. 
  • Continuous rains, stagnant water and frost harm the crop adversely. 

Soil required for Groundnut

  • Sandy loams and well-drained soils are considered suitable for groundnut cultivation. 

Method of Cultivation for Groundnut

  • Sowing: After ploughing, seeds are sowed by broadcasting and drilling methods. It is a flowering plant, and the crop takes about 4–5 months for harvesting. 
  • Harvesting: During harvesting, the entire plant is removed from the soil. Groundnuts are packed in sacks after drying. They are sent to mills or commercial establishments. 

Distribution of Groundnut

India is the second largest producer of groundnut after China. It is mainly grown in Peninsular India. Gujarat is the leading producer of groundnut in India. Other groundnut-producing states are Maharashtra, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. 

The table below gives details of the other oil seeds produced in India. 


Cotton is an important cash crop which provides raw materials to Indian industries. It is a tropical crop grown in the kharif season. 

Climatic Conditions required for Cotton

  • The cotton plant requires a high temperature ranging between 21°C and 30°C. While during October, the temperature should be above 26°C to help in ripening and bursting of cotton balls, the minimum temperature should not fall below 20°C as it retards plant growth. 
  • A long growing period of at least 200 frost-free days is also necessary for the plant to mature. 
  • Moderate rainfall of 50–75 cm is required for the growth of the plant. Rainfall more than 85 cm can destroy the crop. 

Soil required for Cotton

Well-drained clayey soil rich in lime and phosphate is suitable for the growth of cotton plant. The deep black soil of the plateau regions and Gujarat is also considered suitable for the growth of the cotton plant. 

Methods of Cultivation of Cotton

Sowing: The seeds are sown by the drilling or broadcast methods generally before the beginning of rainfall. 

Harvesting: Harvesting is done in October when the cotton balls ripen and burst. 

Processing: After harvesting, the cotton crop passes through the following processes: 

  • The cotton balls are ginned after harvesting. Ginning is a process of separating cotton fibres from cotton seeds. 
  • The seeds are then crushed to produce oil; the residue is then used for feeding cattle. 
  • The cotton fibre or the bale is then transported to the manufacturing regions. 
  • After washing fibres, rope-like mass of fibre known as sliver is formed. 
  • The sliver is then spun to make cotton yarn. 

Varieties of Cotton 

Five main varieties of cotton are grown in India. These are superior long staple, long staple, superior medium staple, medium staple and short staple. 

Distribution of Cotton

The chief cotton-growing regions of the country are:

  • The northwestern parts of the Deccan having fertile black soil 
  • The central and southern Deccan of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu 
  • The Upper Ganga Valley

Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Punjab are the chief cotton-producing states in the country. Other cotton-producing states are Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana, Karnataka and Tami Nadu. 


Jute is one of the most important fibres grown in India. White jute grows on lowlands and uplands. The tossa jute is grown only on uplands as it can be damaged by floods. Jute is used for manufacturing sacks and other packaging materials. Jute is also used for manufacturing many utility products such as carpets, rugs, twine and tarpaulins. 

Mesta is an inferior substitute for jute. 

Climatic Conditions required for Jute

  • The jute crop requires hot and humid climate with temperatures ranging between 24°C and 35°C. 
  • The crop requires an annual rainfall of more than 150 cm. 
  • Uninterrupted rains and prolonged droughts are harmful for the crop. 

Soil for Jute

  • New alluvial soil is considered suitable for the growth of the jute crop.

Methods of Cultivation 

Sowing: Seeds are sowed by broadcasting and drilling methods. They are sown in February on lowlands and in March and June on uplands.

Harvesting: The crop is harvested from July to September. The plants are cut after they attain the height of 2–4 m, and then they are put into a pond for retting. After peeling the bark, the fibre is rinsed, washed, dried and pressed into bales. 

Processing: Jute is put into specialised tanks for retting. After obtaining fibres, they are dried, spun and woven into sacks and carpets. 

Distribution of Jute: West Bengal is the leading producer of jute in the country. In Bengal, jute is grown in Nadia, Parganas, Jalpaiguri, Malda and Burdwan. It is also grown in Assam, Bihar, Odisha and Uttar Pradesh. 


Tea is an important beverage in India. 

Climatic Conditions required for Tea

  • The ideal maximum temperature for the growth of the tea plant is about 24–30°C. The tea plant grows well under shade. 
  • High humidity, heavy dew and morning fog are good for the development of young leaves. 
  • The tea plant grows well in humid climate. It needs adequate annual rainfall of about 150 cm distributed throughout the year. 

Soil for Tea

  • It grows well in regions of well-drained loamy soil or forest soil rich in humus. 
  • The soil should be gently rolled to prevent waterlogging. 

Methods of Cultivation for Tea


  • One way of planting tea is that first high-quality seeds are sown in nurseries. The saplings are then transplanted within a year in a tea garden. 
  • Tea shrubs can also be grown in nurseries from the cutting of high-yielding varieties. This is known as the clonal planting method of propagating tea. 
  • Tea gardens are located on hillslopes as slopes prevent the soil from waterlogging. Standing water or waterlogging can seriously damage the crop. 


  • Bushes of the plant are pruned. In India, tea leaves are picked frequently.
  • Tea picking is a skilful job and is mostly done by women. 


There are four types of tea and each is processed differently. 

  1. Black Tea
    Withering: Tea leaves are dried under the Sun to extract moisture.
    Rolling: Leaves are then rolled mechanically between steel rollers to break the fibres.
    Fermentation: The leaves are fermented, reducing the amount of tannic acid in tea by half.
    Drying: Leaves are then dried over a fire or in an oven until they are black.
    Blending: Blenders then give blend grades of tea to give it a special aroma. 
  2. Green Tea
    The picked leaves are heated immediately by roasting them.
    There is no fermentation process and leaves remain green even when they are dried, graded and packed.
  3. Oolong Tea
    This tea is prepared by partially drying and fermenting the leaves.
    Much of this tea is exported to the United States. 
  4. Brick Tea
    Inferior and coarser leaves and stems are compressed into rectangular blocks of brick tea.
    This tea is mostly consumed in Tibet and Russia. 

Distribution of Tea

India is the fourth largest exporter of tea. Assam is the leading producer of tea in India, followed by West Bengal. Tea is also produced on a large scale in Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Other minor tea-producing regions are Ratnagiri and Satara in Maharashtra, Purnea in Bihar, Kangra Valley in Himachal Pradesh and Coorg and Shimoga in Karnataka. 


Three main species of coffee are grown in India. These are:

  • Coffea robusta: It is grown in areas of lower elevation where Arabica is not usually grown and can survive in even arid conditions. It produces poor quality coffee. 
  • Coffea liberica: It is a disease-resistant species of coffee which is generally grown on the lowlands. Both Robusta and Liberica are suitable for making ‘instant’ coffee and thus have become popular. 
  • Coffea arabica: It is the finest quality of coffee, but it is prone to diseases. Its main varieties are Chicks, Blue Mountain and Bourbon Amarillo. 

Climatic Conditions required for coffee

  • Coffee requires warm climate with a temperature of 15–28°C. It can neither withstand frost nor high temperature.
  • The coffee plant is planted under the shade of trees (such as silver oak and jackfruit) as direct sunlight can damage the crop. 
  • The coffee plant requires rainfall between 150 and 200 cm. A prolonged drought may severely damage the crop. 

Soil required for Coffee

Rich, well-drained friable loamy soil is suitable for the growth of coffee plant. Fertilisers are added to make the soil fertile. 

Methods of Cultivation for Coffee


  • Saplings of coffee plant are taken from the nursery and are then transplanted to the field. 
  • Plants are planted 3 m apart from each other. They are pruned. The height of the coffee plant is maintained at 1.5 to 2.5 m.
  • Coffee plants are grown on slopes as stagnant water is harmful for the crop. 
  • Many trees such as oranges, cardamom and pepper vines are also planted to generate extra income. 


  • The coffee plant is harvested in the fourth or fifth year. Coffee is picked by hands by removing ripe berries from the stalk.

Processing of Tea

  • The coffee berries are passed through the machine which removes their outer covering. 
  • The beans are then fermented by drying under the Sun. After being peeled, the beans are roasted at a temperature of 99°C and are then ground into coffee powder. 

Distribution of Tea

Coffee is mainly produced in Karnataka (Coorg and Chikmagalur), Kerala (Kozhikode, Palakkad and Idukki) and Tamil Nadu (Nilgiri district, Madurai and Coimbatore). 


Rubber is obtained from latex—a milky juice obtained from various plants such as castile and Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber). 

Climatic Conditions required for Rubber

  • Para rubber is grown in India at an elevation of about 300 to 450 m on the slopes of the Western and Eastern Ghats. 
  • It grows well in hot and humid conditions. It is grown in regions where the temperature does not fall below 21°C. It grows well between 25°C and 35°C. 
  • The rubber plant requires evenly distributed high rainfall of 200–400 cm.

Soil required for Rubber

The plant requires rich, well-drained alluvial and laterite soils. 

Methods of Cultivation 


  • Rubber is cultivated either by propagating seeds or by bud grafting. 
  • In propagation of seeds, seeds are allowed to sprout in the river bed sand. After germination, they are planted in nurseries and are then transplanted in the fields. 
  • Bud grafting is carried out by selecting quick-growing buds. After the seedlings grow, the buds are grafted on the seedlings. 
  • Rubber plant needs proper caring and good manuring for growth and good yield. 


  • Latex is obtained from the rubber tree by the process of tapping. After cutting the bark of the rubber tree, latex is collected in containers placed below the plant. 
  • Tapping is not carried out in the rainy season as latex dilutes because of rainwater. It is also suspended during winter as its production is minimal at this time. 

Processing of Rubber

  • Latex contains about 35% of dry rubber. After collecting, it is sent to a factory for processing. 
  • It is cleaned and mixed with acetic acid and is heated for about 24 hours. 
  • The spongy whitish mass is then obtained which is passed through the rollers to drain out water. 
  • They are then rolled into sheets and dried.

Distribution of Rubber

India is the fourth largest producer of natural rubber in the world. Kerala produces about 95% of the total annual output. It is produced mainly in Kottayam, Kozhikode, Ernakulum and Kollam districts in Kerala. It is also grown in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Tripura, Assam, Goa and Andaman and Nicobar Islands also produce rubber in small quantities.

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