ICSE Solutions for Chapter 8 Agriculture in India Class 10 Geography

Very Short Questions

1. What is meant by the term agriculture?


Agriculture is an occupation of a man to manage his environment in order to produce food. It is defined as the cultivation of the soil in order to grow crops and rear livestock.

2. What is terraced farming?


Terraced farming is prevalent in hilly areas. In this type of farming terraces are made along the hill slopes to get levelled land for growing crops. 

3. What is Green Revolution?


Green Revolution is a new strategy to increase agricultural production through modern techniques of farming.

4. Which of the above mentioned agriculture is more common in India?


Subsistence type of agriculture is more common in India.

5. Define the terms:

(i) Dry crops,

(ii) Fibre crops.


(i) Drought resistant crops which can survive in regions with less rainfall and poorer soil is called dry crop. e.g., millets.

(ii) Any crop yielding a fibre which is used for textiles is known as fibre crop, e.g., jute, cotton.

6. What do you understand by the following terms: Threshing, Monoculture.


Threshing: Removing the grain from the stalk.

Monoculture: Single crop year after year and all round the year.

7. What do you understand by the term ‘Jhuming’?


It is a primitive method of subsistence agriculture in which a patch of forest is cleared and crops are grown. When the fertility of soil is lost after two or three years the cultivators move on to another patch. This way large forests are destroyed.

8. Where is Jhuming practised in India?


It is practised in India in backward forested area of Assam where the rainfall is abundant.

9. What are the disadvantages of Jhuming?


It is a health hazard and yields small amount of crop.

10. What do you understand by commercial crops?


Crops grown with a view to earn revenue or income, either by exporting or sale within the country itself, e.g., sugarcane, cotton, oilseeds, tea, coffee, spices.

11. How can commercial crops be classified?


Commercial crops can be classified as: 

  1. Fibre crops (cotton, jute etc.) 
  2. Beverage crops (tea and coffee) 
  3. Oilseed crops (groundnut, sesame, mustard etc.)

12. What does HYV stand for?”


HYV stands for High Yielding Varieties.

13. Which cereal is regarded as the oldest cultivated cereal in the world?


Rice is regarded as the oldest cultivated cereal in the world.

14. What are the two methods of cultivation of rice? Which one is known for its better yields?


Drilling, dibbling, broadcasting, transplanting. Transplantation is known for its better yields.

15. Which is the second largest rice producing country in the world?


India is the second largest rice producing country in the world.

16. Which is the ideal soil for the growth of rice?


Alluvial, friable loamy with clay-like impervious sub-soil is ideal for the growth of rice.

17. What do you understand by broadcasting sowing?


Broadcasting is the scattering of seeds in the fields. Inferior variety of rice is grown in this way and its yield per hectare is low.

18. What is dibbling method of sowing?


In the method of dibbling, seeds are dropped at regular intervals in the furrows made by the plough.

19. What is drilling method of cultivation?


In the drilling method, the seeds are dropped in furrows through a bamboo-shaft attached to the plough.

20. Why does the method of transplantation give better yields?


Which one is known for better yields.


The method of transplantation gives better yields, due to efforts of plentiful human labour.

21. Which method of cultivation in India is being popularized to increase the productivity of rice?


Japanese method of rice cultivation is being popularized in India in order to increase the productivity of rice.

22. Mention the two categories in which the rice crops in India can be grouped.


The categories into which rice crops can be grouped are:

  1. Upland Rice
  2.  Lowland Rice.

23. Which is the largest rice growing state?


West Bengal is the largest rice growing state, producing about 15% of the total rice of India.

24. Why is India not able to export rice?


India is not able to export rice because rice in good quantity and quality in the country.

25. Which type of soils are suitable for wheat cultivation?


Soil must be clayey loamy or black soil, well drained, textured with a small lime content and flat level land.

26. Mention some varieties of wheat.


Some varieties of wheat are:

  1. Raj-3077
  2. WH-66
  3. Mangala

27. Is wheat a rabi or kharif crop? In which state of India is the largest amount of wheat grown?


Wheat is a rabi crop. Uttar Pradesh produces the largest amount about 31% of the total production of wheat.

28. What is the average yield of wheat per hectare in India?


The average yield of wheat per hectare in India is 2,250 kg.

29. (i) What is ‘Hybrid’?

(ii) What is ‘Rust’?


(i) Crossing of two varieties of seeds of the same family to give a new seed is known as hybrid.

(ii) A fungus called ‘rust’ affects the wheat crop in India.

30. Name an area of wheat cultivation in India and state why it is suitable for the cultivation of wheat. (Mention two reasons).


Uttar Pradesh. It is suitable for wheat cultivation because

  1. Low winter temperature.
  2. Extensive irrigation facilities.

31. What do you understand by the term ‘millets’?


Large number of grasses grown for grain or fodder. Seeds are round and very small and grow in large numbers on short stalks at the top of the stem, e.g., jowar, bajra, ragi.

32. Which technique of farming is required for growing ragi?


Ragi is an important Kharif crop in Peninsular India. It is grown either with the dry farming technique or as an irrigated crop.

33. To which countries does India export millets?


India exports millets to the Middle East and African countries.

34. Where are the pulses grown in India?


The pulses are grown mainly in the following states of India:

  1. U.P.
  2. Punjab
  3. M.P.
  4. Maharashtra
  5. Karnataka.

35. What is ’Pearl Millet’ and ‘Finger Millet’?


Bajra is known as Pearl millet. Ragi is known as Finger millet.

36. Why is ‘arhar’ called a dry crop? In which states it is produced?


Arhar is called a dry crop because it is seldom irrigated. Arhar is produced in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka.

37. Which is the best method of growing sugarcane? Why?


Ratoon cropping is the best method of growing sugarcane because this method is labour saving, decreases cost of production and matures early.

38. Which type of soil is required for growing sugarcane?


Sugarcane can be grown well in well drained medium loamy soils or rich clay-like loamy or lava soils.

39. Define the term ‘Molasses’.


It is a kind of dark brown syrup that drains from sugar during the process of manufacture. It is used to produce industrial alcohol, fertilizers, rum and yeast.

40. Which city has been selected for research in sugarcane crop?


At present, the Sugarcane Research Institute, Coimbatore, conduct researches in sugarcane.

41. Which state of India is the leading producer of ‘groundnut’?



42. Mention four main uses of groundnuts.


  1. It is used for vanaspati ghee.
  2. It is used for making soap.
  3. It is eaten raw or roasted.
  4. Its oil cake is used for cattle feed.

43. Mention the conditions necessary for the cultivation of sesame.


Sesame thrives best in light and sandy soils, although some varieties grow well in black soil areas. It grows within 3 or 4 months.

44. Mention the ranking of India in the world for producing castor seeds.


India is the second largest producer of castor seeds in the world.

45. State whether linseed is a Kharif or a Rabi crop, and name the state where it is grown extensively.


Linseed is a Rabi crop. It is extensively grown in Madhya Pradesh.

46. Define the term ‘oil cake’.


Oil cake is the residue left after oilseed pressing and used for manure and the leaves are fed to silk worms for silk production.

47. Which states are the main producers of coconuts?


Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Gujarat are the main producers of coconut.

48. Name the type of soil ideal for the cultivation of cotton.


Cotton thrives in light well drained alluvial soils, rich in lime, or black lava soil. The sticky black soil of peninsular India is ideal for its cultivation.

49. Mention the months in which cotton is sown and the months in which it is harvested.


Cotton is sown from April to August and is harvested between October to March.

50. Mention the states where cotton is produced.


Cotton is produced in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh. Among them Gujarat and Maharashtra are the most important.

51. Explain the term ‘Ginning.’


Ginning is a process of collecting and separating raw cotton from seeds of the balls.

52. Why cotton balls must be picked immediately?


Cotton balls must be picked immediately otherwise there is risk of cotton being ruined by rain, fog, dust or pests.

53. Why is jute called ‘golden fibre’?


Jute is called as the ‘golden fibre’ because of its colour and high cash value.

54. How is jute fibre obtained?


Jute fibre is obtained from the inner bark of the jute plant which is soft and strong and can be drawn out in good lengths. A coarse fabric is woven from this fibre.

55. Explain briefly what is meant by the term ‘Retting’?


Retting is the method by which the jute fibre is removed from the stem by submerging it in flowing water for 20-25 days and then it is dried in the sun.

56. What do you understand by the term ‘Mesta’?


Mesta is a substitute product for jute. It is a coarser fibre for gunny bags, inferior to jute in quality and strength. It tolerates drier conditions and is grown in more or less in the same areas.

57. Mention the areas where jute is cultivated.


Name one area in India where jute is cultivated widely.


The cultivation of jute is done at the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta in West Bengal and in Assam, Bihar and Orissa.

58. Mention the ranking of India in the world for producing raw jute.


India ranks second in the production of jute.

59. What are the principal operations involved in the preparation of marketable tea?


The principal operations involved in the preparation of marketable tea are: Plucking or picking, withering, rolling and fermenting, drying and cutting, grading and branding, tasting and packing.

60. Which state in India is the largest producer of tea?


Assam is the largest producer of tea and accounts for more than 50%, of tea produced in India.

61. Mention the countries where tea is exported.


Indian tea is exported to 80 countries of the world but our main customers are U.K., Russia, U.A.R., Sudan, Afghanistan and U.S.A.

62. State any two factors that favour the growth of tea in Assam.


(i) Mountain slopes

(ii) Temperate region.

63. Which state in India is the largest producer of coffee? Give two climatic conditions that favour the cultivation of,coffee in that state.


Karnataka. Climatic conditions that favour the cultivation of coffee in Karnataka are:

(i) Well drained soil

(ii) Suitable climate, rainfall between 125 cm to 200 cm and temperature is between 18°C to 27°C.

64. When did rubber plantation start in India?


Rubber plantation started in India in 1902, for which the seeds were brought from Brazil in South America.

65. What type of soil is required for the growth of rubber?


Rubber requires a deep, rich and well-drained soil or laterite soils.

66. Which crop in India represent the world’s best example of plantation agriculture in all its aspects?


‘Natural rubber’ represents the world’s best example of plantation agriculture in all its aspects.

67. (i) Mention the main areas of production of rubber.

(ii) In which part of India is rubber grown on commercial scale?


(i) Rubber is mainly produced in southern part of Peninsula. Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka are the principal states of rubber plantations.

(ii) Kerala.

Short Questions

1. Why is agriculture called the backbone of India’s economic system?


Agriculture can be called the backbone of India’s economic system because two thirds of the Indian population is engaged in the cultivation of land. Agriculture not only helps to feed the large population, but it also supports the principal manufacturing industries with raw materials. It also provides as substantial portion of the country’s exports.

2. Mention some factors relating to the importance of agriculture.


  1. Agriculture is the prominent occupation of the people.
  2. Agriculture supports the principal manufacturing industries with raw materials.
  3. Several agricultural products are important items of our export trade.
  4. Agriculture is the major source of national income.

3. What are the main characteristics of Indian agriculture? Give any three.


State two important characteristics of Indian agriculture.


  1. On account of variety of soils and climatic variations wide variety of crops can be grown. 
  2. There are two important crop seasons in India: Kharif and Rabi. 
  3. Both the intensive and extensive types of farming are prevalent in India. 

4. Mention some problems of Indian agriculture.


Mention two problems associated with agriculture in India.


Some problems of Indian agriculture are:

  1. Uncertainty of rainfall,
  2. uneconomic size of holdings,
  3. illiteracy and ignorance,
  4. outdated implements,
  5. inadequate irrigation facilities,
  6. soil erosion,
  7. poor quality of seeds, and
  8. lack of scientific approach.

5. How do the monsoon affect cultivation in India?


Agriculture in India depends on monsoon rains. It can sometime bring very heavy rain and cause flood and sometimes dry spells can lead to drought conditions.

6. What solutions are offered against irregular monsoon as far as farming is concerned?


Floods and droughts are controlled by making multipurpose river valley schemes.

7. Mention some important types of farming in India.


Some important types of farming in India are:

Intensive farming, extensive farming, humid farming, irrigated farming, dry farming, shifting or migratory farming, subsistence farming, commercial farming, plantation farming, mixed farming, terraced farming.

8. What is dry farming?


Dry farming is practiced in those areas where rainfall is scanty and irrigation facilities are not available. The farmers make special efforts to conserve soil moisture and to make the maximum use of limited rain water. Red soil is suited for dry farming as it does not require much moisture.

9. What is mixed farming?


What is meant by mixed farming? State one advantage of this type of farming.


In mixed farming the farmer combines with farming some other subsidiary occupation such as cattle-rearing, fruit and vegetable growing or poultry-farming. In mixed farming there is a special scheme of crops. The farmer has additional source of income and earns more.

10. Mention any two important features of Green Revolution.


Two important features of Green Revolution are:

  1. Introduction of new and high-yielding varieties (HYV) of improved seeds.
  2. Increased application of the recommended dozes of fertilizers.

11. Describe any two main features of subsistence agriculture.


  1. Farmer produces exclusively for his own consumption.
  2. The farms are small and only the farmer’s family works on it to cultivate food crops like rice, wheat, pulses, etc.

12. What is meant by ‘Plantation crops’?


Plantation crops are grown on large farms which are modem, scientific and self contained units. Only one crop is grown on a large-scale. Enormous capital investment is required to set up a plantation and a large number of labourers are employed. These farms provide factories for processing of crops. E.g., Tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane etc.

13. Mention two categories of the agriculture products of the country.


The main agricultural products fall into two categories.

  1. Food grain crops: rice, wheat, barley, maize, millets and pulses.
  2. Commercial crops: cotton, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, oilseeds, tea, coffee, rubber and coconut.

14. What is ‘crop rotation’?


Growing of different crops on the same field after the harvest of the previous crop is known as crop rotation. It is generally done to preserve minerals in the soil, e.g., leguminous plants like peas and beans are generally planted after a crop like wheat, to add nitrogen to the soil exhausted by wheat.

15. What is ‘Zayad’?


‘Zayad’ is an extra crop. It is grown in the months of April, May and June, just after the Rabi crops are harvested. The season of this crop is very short and its main products are seasonal fruits and vegetables.

16. What is meant by Kharif and Rabi Crops? Give examples.


Name the months when Kharif and Rabi crops are:

(i) Sown,

(ii) Harvested


(i) When are kharif crops: (1) Sown, (2) Harvested.

(ii) Name a cash crop which is also a kharif crop.

What is a Rabi crop?


Kharif Crops: These crops are sown at the commencement of the rainy season in June and harvested in the autumn season in the beginning of November. The principal products of the Kharif crops are rice, maize, cotton, jute, tobacco, castor, groundnut and sesame.

Rabi Crops: These crops are sown in winter season (October-November) and harvested in the beginning of summer (March-April). The main products of the Rabi crops are wheat, barley, gram, linseed and mustard.

17. What are the conditions necessary for the cultivation of rice?


Rice needs a warm or humid climate. The areas having average temperatures of 22°C to 32°C are suitable for its cultivation. During the growing season, the temperature must be more than 25°C. The areas having heavy rainfall ranging from 150 to 300 cm are more suitable for its growth.

18. What are the main features of the Japanese method of rice cultivation?


The main features of the Japanese method of rice cultivation are:

  1. Use of better quality seeds.
  2. Sowing of seeds in raised nursery beds.
  3. Transplanting of seedlings in rows. It facilitates weeding and fertilizing.
  4. Manuring is done several times, e.g., while preparing seed beds, before transplantation in the actual fields and just before flowering of the rice plants.
  5. Irrigation is done regularly to ensure regular supply of water during the period of growth.

19. Briefly discuss the transplanting method of cultivation.


In the transplanting method seedlings are sown in small carefully prepared plots. When the seedlings are 15 cm high they are uprooted carefully by hand in small bunches and carried to well prepared fields where they are transplanted at regular intervals. After transplantation water is supplied regularly till the plants become mature. Harvesting is done when rice are nearly ripe. All this work is done by hand.

20. When is upland rice sown?


The upland rice is sown without irrigation in the months of March-April. The crop becomes mature within six months, and the harvesting takes place in September-October. This variety of rice totally depends on natural rains and is usually grown at the higher elevations. The production of crop is confined totally to local consumption.

21. What conditions are required for growing lowland rice?


The lowland rice is grown in flat lowland areas, where it requires a lot of irrigation during sowing and harvesting period. A good quantity of this variety of rice is grown by transplantation method. This variety of rice is sown in June, and is harvested in October-November. Most of the rice grown in India is the lowland rice.

22. Name the state where rice is grown almost exclusively as a cash crop. What makes rice the staple food crop of India?


In Punjab the farmers cultivate rice as a cash or commercial crop. Rice is grown in almost all states of India except Gujarat and Rajasthan. Rice can feed more people compared to same amount of any other food grains.

23. Give two advantages of growing rice in nurseries.


Two advantage of growing rice in nurseries are:

  1. It increases the yield by 45%.
  2. Uses water economically.

24. What geographical conditions are necessary for the growth of wheat?


Name an area of wheat cultivation in India and state why it is suitable for the cultivation of wheat. (Mention two reasons).


Explain why wheat is grown as a Rabi crop?


Uttar Pradesh grows wheat well where the normal temperature is between 10°C to 15°C and the average rainfall ranges from 50 to 100 cm. Alluvial soil and level land is suitable for wheat cultivation. Warm and sunny weather are essential at the time of ripening.

25. What are the factors responsible for high productivity of wheat in the north western parts of India?


The, following factors are responsible for high productivity of wheat in the north western parts of India. They are:

  1. Low winter temperature.
  2. 80 cm of rainfall.
  3. Winter rainfall due to the western disturbances.
  4. Extensive irrigation facilities.

26. What are the conditions necessary for growing millets?


Why millets are called a ‘dry crop’?


Millets are dry crops and they can thrive even in areas with an average rainfall of 50 to 120 cm and a normal temperature ranges between 27°C to 32°C. Even inferior alluvial soils prove suitable for their production. Cultivation of millets is, therefore, more prevalent on the plateau region than on the northern plains.

27. What are the conditions necessary for growing jowar?


Jowar can be grown in different climate and soil conditions. Some varieties of jowar can be grown in three months only whereas others take as much as five months. The sowing is done by the broadcasting method. After the harvest, the stalks are used as cattle-fodder and the grain is used as food mostly by the poor.

28. Which season is suitable for growing bajra? Name the states where bajra is grown.


Bajra is grown during the rainy season. Sowing is done in the middle of June and harvesting in November and December. Bajra is grown widely in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, . Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Haryana, Punjab and Madhya Pradesh.

29. Do you think that the cultivation of pulses is lagging behind in recent times? Give two reasons to justify your view.


The production of pulses is lagging behind because the gap between demand and supply is fulfilled by importing pulses and the pulses are considered merely the rotation crops not the main crops.

30. Mention the conditions necessary for growing sugarcane.


Mention the climatic conditions needed for the cultivation of sugarcane.


Sugarcane is essentially a tropical plant. It thrives well where the summer temperatures are between 25°C to 30°C and the annual rainfall is between 100 to 150 cm. Plenty of water is needed during the time of growth. If rainfall is less, irrigation becomes essential.

31. State two disadvantages of Ratoon cropping.


  1. (i) It yields thinner canes with lower sugar content.
  2. (ii) Increasing risk of pests and diseases.

32. Name some by-products of sugarcane and their uses.


  • Molasses: It is used to produce industrial alcohol, fertilizers, rum, treacle and yeast.
  • Bagasse: It is used as fuel for mills and mainly used for paper, fibre board and synthetic fibres.
  • Press mud: It is used to make wax, shoe polish and carbon paper.

33. Mention the conditions necessary for the growth of groundnut.


Groundnut thrives best in areas where the temperature ranges between 22°C to 28°C, and the rainfall is about 50 to 75 cm. Groundnut plants grow best in sandy soils. Warm coastal areas with high humidity are ideal places for its growth.

34. What are the geographical conditions necessary for the cultivation of groundnuts?


Groundnuts require about 20°C to 25°C temp, and light to moderate rainfall of at least 40 cm. For groundnut red, yellow and black soil of the peninsular region is suitable. It is generally grown in dry and sub tropical climate.

35. Give three uses of groundnuts.


  1. Groundnut oil is used for cooking and in the manufacturing of soaps and candles.
  2. The oil cake is used as cattle feed.
  3. Being a leguminous plant it plays an important role in crop rotation and in enriching the soil.

36. What are the conditions for the growth of castor plants?


The castor plant needs a warm climate, though it is grown both as a Kharif and a Rabi crop. In order to ensure good germination of castor plants, large amount of moisture and rainfall is essential after the sowing period. It grows well in dry lands where maize is cultivated. The castor plant grows to a height of 6 to 8 metres.

37. How is linseed obtained and what are its uses?


Linseed is obtained from a fibre plant known as flax. Linseed oil is used extensively in the making of paints and varnishes, oil cloth and printing-ink. The flax from the plant is useful for making linoleum.

38. Mention the conditions necessary for growing linseed and name the states where it is grown?


Linseed is a tropical plant, and it thrives where the temperature averages around 20°C. The annual rainfall between 45 cm to 75 cm is best suited for its cultivation. Linseed is sown just after monsoon and the crop is harvested in February-March. Linseed producing states are Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, Rajasthan and Karnataka.

39. Name the seed obtained from the flax plant. Name two commercial uses of its oil and one use of its oil-cake.


Seed obtained from the flax plant is called linseed.

Its commercial uses are: 

  1. It is an excellent drying oil and used for paints, varnishes, printing ink, oil-cloth. 
  2. Seasoning of wood. 
  3. Its oil cake is used as manure. 

40. What are the uses of cotton seed?


Cotton seed oil is used extensively in the manufacture of hydrogenated oil. It is also used in pharmacy in the preparation of margarine as a substitute for oil. The oil cake is used as a cattle feed.

41. State three main uses of soyabean.


The three main uses of soyabean are:

  1. As a fresh vegetable fermented to form a paste or sauce like soya sauce.
  2. As an oil, soyabean is used for cooking, making margarine, soaps, paints, lubricants, varnishes and printing ink.
  3. It is used as an artificial meat, which is tasty and nutritious as ordinary meat.

42. Which are the two most important oilseed crops of India? State the crop season and the major areas in which each of them is grown.


Groundnut and mustard are the edible oilseeds which are grown in India.

  1. Groundnut is grown as a kharif crop in the states of Maharashtra, Gujarat, M.P., Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
  2. Mustard is grown as a rabi crop mainly in Northern India. It is grown in Punjab, Haryana, East Rajasthan, M.P., U.P., Bihar and West Bengal.

43. Give some uses of coconut palm.


Every part of the coconut palm is used by the people. The fresh kernel is used for edible purposes. The mature nut yields copra oil and oil cake. The fibre is used for coir. The trunk is used for construction purposes. Coconut oil is used for cooking purposes and for the manufacture of margarine and other butter substitutes.

44. (i) What are the requirements for the growing of coconut trees?

(ii) How long do they take to mature?


(i) Coconut thrives best in tropical coastal areas where temperature ranges between 20°C to 27°C, and the rainfall is about 150 to 300 cm. Coconut trees require loose porous soil, sandy soil along sea shores and mild sea breeze are ideal conditions.

(ii) They take 5 to 10 years to mature and bears fruit for over 40 years.

45. Mention the conditions necessary for the growth of cotton.


Why is cotton grown widely in the Deccan Plateau?


Temperature: 20°C to 35°C.

Rainfall: 80 cm to 120 cm.

Soil: Black soil.

Cotton is a tropical plant. In areas where the precipitation is insufficient, cotton can be grown with the help of irrigation. During the period of growth of the cotton plant, there should be abundant sunshine.

46. In what way does the cotton industry contribute to the economy of India? Mention any three relevant factors.


  1. The cotton industry is a major foreign exchange earner for India.
  2. It provides employment to a large section of the population.
  3. Supports a large number of industries like chemical, packaging material etc.

47. Mention some uses of jute.


Jute is used for making cloth to wrap bales of cotton, gunny bags, rope, string, jute carpets, fibres and twine. Now, it is also used for making, furnishing material, shopping bags and sail cloth. Very fine threads of jute are made into imitation silks.

48. What are the conditions necessary for the growth of jute plant?


Jute needs a hot and damp climate. It grows best in areas having a minimum temperature of 27°C during the period of growth. The rainfall should range between 170 cm to 250 cm annually. Plenty of water is also required for processing after harvesting the plant.

49. Why is jute called the brown paper of the wholesale trade?


Jute is called ‘brown paper bag of wholesale trade due to the widespread use of jute fabric (sack cloth) for wrapping bales of cotton and wool and rice, wheat, sugar, pulses, fertilizers and cement in sacks.

50. Mention the conditions necessary for the cultivation of rubber.


What are the climatic requirements of rubber plantations in terms of:

(i) Mean annual temperature.

(ii) Minimum temperature.

(iii) Amount of rainfall, and

(iv) Rainfall regime.


Rubber needs a hot and wet climate, like that of equatorial areas. The temperature should be over 25°C and never below 21 °C. It needs heavy rainfall, ranging between 200 cm to 250 cm and well-distributed throughout the year. Rubber thrives in areas where variations in temperature and humidity are low.

51. What do you understand by the term ‘Tapping’ and with which crop this term is associated?


When the rubber plants mature into trees after 7 or 8 years they are tapped for rubber sap. ‘V’ shape cut is made in the bark of the tree and a pot is tied round the trunk just below the tip of the cut. It is known as tapping. This term is associated with production of natural rubber.

52. State the processes involved in producing tea for export.


  1. Plucking is done skillfully by using two leaves and a bud method.
  2. Withering is done by spreading tea leaves to remove moisture.
  3. Rolling is done to break the leaves.

53. Mention some conditions necessary for the growth of tea plant or India is the largest producer of tea. State the climate factors necessary for its growth.


Tea grows well under light shade it is a shade loving plant. It needs temperature 24°C to 30°C (Under Shade). The tea plants grow well in humid climate and can not stand long spell of dry weather at any time of the year. It needs heavy rainfall between 125 cm  to 375 cm, but water should be well drained. Water logging and frost conditions are injurious for the tea plant.

54. What are tea’s requirements in terms of soil and rainfall?


Tea needs well-drained fertile soils rich in nitrogen, sandy loamy are best for its growth. A little iron in the soil proves beneficial to the crop.

Rainfall —150 to 250 cm.

55. State some problems of tea industry.


Some problems of tea industry are:

  1. There is enormous increase in the cost of production.
  2. Other countries, i.e., Kenya, Sri Lanka, Japan have emerged as our great competitors in tea exports.

56. With reference to the cultivation of tea in South India:

(i) Name one important tea growing area.

(ii) Name the most important port for export of tea.

(iii) After tea is picked it has to go through various states of processing. Name any two of the first four stages.


(i) Annamalai Hills 

(ii) Cochin 

(iii) The two stages are withering and rolling. 

57. What do you understand by the term ‘Clonal Planting’?


Cuttings are taken from a tea plant known for its special quality and flavour, called the ‘mother plant’ and then grown so as to produce tea shrubs. They are first grown in nurseries apd a year later when they are about 20 cm high they are transplanted to the main tea garden. This is known as clonal planting.

58. What are the conditions necessary for the growth of coffee plant?


The coffee plant thrives in a hot and humid climate, with temperatures ranging from 18°C to 28°C. The plant also requires 125 to 200 cm of annual rainfall which should be well distributed throughout the year.

59. Coffee plantations are concentrated in the Southern part of India. Why?


Coffee plant requires comparatively higher temperature than the tea plant. It is very sensitive to cold and frost. South India is therefore more suitable for the coffee plantation because of its location in the tropical region much nearer to the equator than the north India hills. The entire Indian coffee is produced by the plantations of Nilgiri and Annamalai hills. Karnataka leads in production followed by Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

60. State any two problems faced by coffee cultivators in India.


Two problems faced by coffee cultivators in India are:

  1. The production fluctuates due to changes in climatic conditions and other factors.
  2. The country has to face stiff competition in the international market from countries like Kenya and Brazil.

61. What are the geographical conditions required for the cultivation of Silk in India?


Silk is obtained from a small worm known as the silkworm, which feeds on the mulberry leaves. When silkworms are being reared, temperature should not fall below 15°C. Labour also must be cheap so that the rearing of silk worms and unwinding of fibre from the cocoons, which require a great deal of hard work and skill, should not be very expensive. 

62. Mention any two features of plantation farming stating two examples.


  1. A single crop is grown on a large estate with modem and scientific techniques mainly for trade.
  2. It is a labour intensive method of farming and requires excellent managerial skills, tech-nical know-how and huge capital investment. Example: Tea, Coffee, Coconut, Rubber etc.

Long Questions

1. In the context of the Indian agriculture, answer the following:

(i) Mention two features which reflect a shift from subsistence farming to commercial farming.

(ii) Give two reasons why the yield of Indian agriculture is low as compared to world standards.

(iii) State two characteristics of plantation agriculture.

(iv) How has the consolidation of land holdings helped the farming community?



  • India became the biggest producer and exporter of tea and rubber both the crops are grown for commercial purposes. 
  • Indian agriculturists now raise as many crops as possible during the year with the aid of artificial irrigation, fertilizers, improved seeds, hybrid varieties and improved implements. 

(ii) Yield of Indian Agriculture is low as compared to world standards because:

  • Dependence on rainfall due to poor irrigation facilities. 
  • Using of poor quality of seeds and lack of scientific approach. 

(iii) Two characteristics of plantation agriculture are: 

  • Plantation crops are grown on large farms which are modem, scientific and self contained units. 
  • Only one crop is grown on a large scale. 

(iv) Consolidation provides a bigger sized compact area for cultivation to the individual farmers and the co-operative farming makes use of this bigger area for cultivation. Under this method several farmers, while retaining their ownership of land and managing it individually adopt the principle of cooperation for non-farm operations like marketing their produce, processing of agricultural products, obtaining inputs of agriculture like seeds, fertilizers and tools, etc. 

2. What is ‘ratooning’? Give two advantages of ratooning.


After harvesting, the lower part of the plant and the roots are left as they were in the field. This gives a new crop for the next year without fresh planting. This way the cane can be produced for three successive years. This is known as ‘ratooning’.


  1. The crop yields earlier.
  2. The cost of cultivation is reduced as no preparation is done for the fresh crops.

3. Briefly explain why sugarcane is increasingly grown in Maharashtra or Southern States.


Sugarcane is increasingly grown in Maharashtra or Southern States because of ideal geographical conditions. The States enjoys an extra advantage of marine influence. Ocean winds help the growth of sugarcane and increase the quantity of juice. Maharashtra has well-planned plantations and use modern scientific agricultural methods. The capital investment is tremendous due to the sugar lobby. Modem sugar factories are located close to the plantations. Irrigation and fertilizers are widely used to ensure a good crop of sugarcane.

4. Mention any two problems which the sugarcane growers are facing.


The sugarcane growers face several problems, because of which they are unable to improve the yield and quality of sugarcane.

  1. Sugarcane is a soil exhausting crop, so it needs enough quantity of manure while cultivating fresh crop.
  2. The farmers depend on canal irrigation for water requirements. The canals are often non-perennial and so the supply of water is uncertain.

5. What steps have been taken by the Government to solve the problems of sugarcane growers?


Some important steps taken by the Government to solve the problems of sugarcane growers are: 

  1. Several chemical fertilizer factories have been set up in the public sector to meet the requirements of the farmers. 
  2. Enormous sums of money have been spent in the construction of large water reservoirs to provide regular irrigation facilities for farming sugarcane. 
  3. The Government has taken steps in consolidating the small agricultural holdings. 
  4. Co-operative societies have been established to solve the problems of cane-growers.

6. Give the uses of any two non-edible oilseeds.


Which oilseed is inedible by man? State any two uses of its oil.


Uses of linseed:

  1. Medicine
  2. Paint diluter. 

Uses of Castor seed:

  1. Castor seed is used for medicinal purposes, 
  2. They are used to extract cooking oil and peanut butter, 
  3. It is used for manufacture of soap and margarine, 
  4. The residue after the oil has been extracted, is used for manure. 

7. With reference to Jute Industry, answer the following;

(i) Name two centres of this industry in West Bengal.

(ii) Name two major jute products.

(iii) Mention two problems faced in this industry.


(i) Kolkata and Howrah. 

(ii) Rugs and carpets. 

(iii) The two major problems are:

  • Machinery is outdated.
  • Problem of raw material.

8. (i) Why is tea considered a labour intensive crop ? Name two states in India where tea is widely grown.

(ii) Mention the main tea producing areas of India.


(i) Tea plant is not allowed to grow beyond a height of 2 to 3 metres. The leaves have to be hand picked as it needs regular pruning, After three years tea bush becomes ready, the skilled pluckers pluck the two leaves and bud pruning and plucking is done by hand so tea is considered a labour intensive crop.

Assam and West Bengal are the two states in India where tea is widely grown.

(ii) The main tea producing areas of India are on the hills bordering the Brahmaputra and Surma valleys in Assam. It is also grown in Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri and districts of West Bengal.

9. How has poverty and fragmentation of land became the problems of agricultural India?


The small and marginal farmers are unable to buy good quality seeds and agricultural machineries which are very expensive. They follow a traditional method of farming so the yields are not high. Chemical fertilizers are costly and are often beyond the reach of the poor farmers. Inheritance laws in the country have laid to a continuous fragmentation of land over the years reducing the size of the land holdings. This results in large scale wastage of fertile land and labour and they become uneconomic for any useful agricultural activity.

10. Explain the following:

(i) The propagation of rubber by the bud grafting method.

(ii) The propagation of paddy by transplantation.


(i) Bud grafting is done by the insertion of a strip of bark containing a bud from high yielding clones under the bark of a young seedling till they become united in 3-4 weeks. The old seedling stem is then sawn off above the grafted bark which then grows to form the new rubber plant.

(ii) Transplantation involves the sowing of rice seeds in nurseries at the beginning of monsoons. When the plants are about 15-20 cm tall they are uprooted and replanted in parallel rows at regular intervals in flooded fields and left to grow till they mature.

Give Reasons

Give Geographical Reasons for the following:

1. Why is agriculture the most important occupation in India? Give two reasons.


  1. The tropical climate provides long growing season in most parts of the country except the Himalayan region. 
  2. Vast stretches of arable land found in the alluvial lowlands of northern plains. Coastal and delta plains, provide unique combination of fertile soils and an abundant water supply.

2. Why is the development of agriculture essential?


The development of agriculture is essential for the following reasons: 

  1. Self-sufficiency in food, 
  2. Raw materials for industries and 
  3. For the balance of trade.

3. Why are commercial crops also known as industrial crops?


Commercial crops are also known as industrial crops, since their products are used as raw materials in various industries.

4. Why is rice predominantly an Asian crop?


Rice is the staple food of more than half the population of the world. It is predominantly an Asian crop because more than 90 per cent of the rice is produced in Asia.

5. Why does the cultivation of rice need plenty of cheap labour?


The cultivation of rice needs plenty of cheap labour, as most of the work in the rice fields is done by hand.

6. Why does India’s export of wheat fluctuates from year to year?


India’s export of wheat fluctuates from year to year because India can only export wheat when its production is in surplus.

7. Why are millets not used as food crop by human beings?


Millets are not used as food crops by human beings because they are coarse and inferior grains. These inferior grains are used by poor people while the stalks are used as cattle fodder.

8. Why is the growing of pulses very important in India?


Why are pulses so widely grown all over India? Give only reason why pulses are a good rotation crop for rice?


Pulses are leguminous plants. Roots supply the most wanted nitrogen ingredient of soil. Pulses are therefore grown as rotation crops or as subsidiary crops along with other crops, so that fertility of the soil remains restored.

9. Why is gram considered as the most important of Indian pulses?


Gram is the most important of Indian pulses, because it has multifarious uses. Apart from being used as a pulse (dal), it is also used for preparing bread in mixture with wheat or barley. Gram is a Rabi crop and is sometimes grown along with wheat or barley especially when the product is meant for utilization by the farmer himself in domestic use.

10. Why are pulses not a significant export item?


Pulses are not a significant export item because these are mostly grown for domestic use. Only gram and peas are exported in small quantities.

11. Why does the cultivation of sugarcane require plenty of cheap labour?


The cultivation of sugarcane requires plenty of cheap labour as most of the work is done by hand.

12. Why Ratoon cropping is popular in sugarcane?


Ratoon cropping is popular in sugarcane because this gives a new crop in next year without fresh planting.

13. Give reasons why sugar industry has flourished in Uttar Pradesh.


Uttar Pradesh is the most important region for the sugar industry because of the following reasons: 

  1. Climate and soil conditions are favourable. 
  2. This region has the advantage of an early start. 
  3. The dense population of the region provide cheap labour as well as good fertilization for the sugar industry. 

14. The yield of sugarcane is higher in the Deccan. Give two reasons for this.


The yield of sugarcane is higher in the Deccan region because of its favourable maritime climate, free from effect of loo and winter frost. Due to this sugarcane can be grown throughout the year. Here it is not a seasonal crop as it is in north. Sufficient irrigation and new farming techniques also help in its yield.

15. State two reasons to explain why the cultivation of oil seeds is lagging behind in recent times.


The two reasons due to which the cultivation of oil seeds is lagging behind in recent times are as follows:

  1. The lack of heavy yielding varieties, irrigation facilities and chemical fertilizers to increase production.
  2. Their production is subject to climatic fluctuations and market speculations.

16. Oilseeds are an important commercial crop grown in India.


Oil is extracted in mills or in village ghanis provide employment to 10 million people both in rural and urban areas. India exports oil. 20% vegetable oil is consumed by the industry to make paints, varnishes, lubricants and seasoning wood. Oil is exported to earn foreign exchange.

17. Oil cake is a useful residue.


Oil cake is excellent cattle feed and also used as fertiliser.

18. Cotton grows widely in Maharashtra.


Cotton plant needs 20°C to 32°C of temperature and at least 200 frost free days. 50-120 cm of rainfall well distributed during the period of growth. Abundant sunshine and no rain is required during ripening and picking period. Since Maharashtra has black soil and the climatic conditions so cotton grows well in Maharashtra.

19. Why does Tamil Nadu raises two crops of cotton?


Tamil Nadu is a state, which has two rainy seasons and the rainfall is moderate. There is no risk of frost, because winters are moderately cool as a result two crops of cotton can be raised.

20. Why is most of the work in the cultivation of cotton done by hand?


Most of the work in the cultivation of cotton is done by hand because labour is needed for picking cotton as well as for other processes. Such as ginning, pressing and packing.

21. Why is dry weather necessary at the time of harvest?


It helps in ripening and bursting of cotton balls.

22. Why jute cultivation is most successful in West Bengal?


West Bengal is most successful for jute cultivation because the delta region is rich in alluvium. It is hot all the year round, it receives heavy rain above 200 cm and plenty of fresh soft water for retting, from the tributaries of Ganga.

23. Why are floods beneficial for the growth of jute?


Floods are beneficial for the growth of jute because plenty of water is needed for the process of retting and a new soil cover is available.

24. Clonal planting is the best method for tea propagation.


Cuttings are taken from a tea plant called the ‘mother plant’ known for its better yield, special flavour and quality and then grown so as to produce tea shrubs yielding the same superior quality of tea. So clonal planting is the best method for the tea propagation.

25. Tea is grown on hill slopes.


Tea is grown on the hill slopes as it requires a moderate temperature of 18-28C. Moreover the hill slopes do not allow the stagnation of water which is essential for tea plants as it cannot tolerate waterlogged conditions.

26. Why are tea plants pruned?


Tea plants are pruned due to two reasons: 

  1. The removal of central stem encourages the quick development of lateral branching and periodical pruning also does not allow the plant to grow more than 40 cm. This facilitates hand plucking which is done mostly by women.
  2. Pruning also helps in growing new shoots bearing soft leaves in plenty.

27. Why has the export of tea declined in foreign markets?


The export of tea has declined in foreign markets because of the tough competition in foreign markets.

28. Tea bushes are pruned at regular intervals.


Pruning encourages the growth of new shoots with softer leaves.

29. Why are coffee estates inter-planted with orange trees, cardamom and pepper vines?


Coffee estates are interplanted with orange trees, cardamon and pepper vines as it provides shade to the coffee plants and provides supplementary income to the farmers.

30. Silver oak and banana trees are grown on coffee plantations.


Silver oak and Orange trees protect the coffee plantations from the direct sunrays. It also provides extra income to the farmers.

31. Tapping of rubber trees is usually done in the morning hours.


Latex flows freely in the early morning and there is less chance of rain.

32.  Give three reasons why most of rubber trees are grown in Kerala?


  1. High temperatures throughout the year (25°C).
  2. Heavy rainfall (more than 300 cm).
  3. Well drained sloping land.


1. Afforestation and Deforestation.


Difference between Afforestation and Deforestation



1. The scheme of plantation of new forest is called afforestation.

It means destruction of forest because of overgrazing, forest fire, cutting of trees, etc.

2. This protects soil from eroding. 

This causes soil erosion.

2. Shifting agriculture and Plantation agriculture. 


Difference between Shifting agriculture and Plantation agriculture

Shifting Agriculture 

Plantation Agriculture

1. Oldest type of agriculture. Slash and Bum method involves.

This type of agriculture is scientifically managed.

2. Practised in the backward areas.

Farms are large with large capital invested with the aim of export. The whole process occurs on commercial lines.

3. Intensive and extensive agriculture. 


Difference between Intensive and extensive agriculture

Intensive Farming 

Extensive Farming

1. Small plots of land are cultivated scientifically with a large yield per hectare.

Large farms are cultivated traditionally with low yield per hectare.

2. Triple cropping is practiced. 

Single crop is grown.

4. Humid and Irrigated farming. 


Difference between Humid and Irrigated farming

Humid Farming 

Irrigated Farming

Humid farming is practised in those areas where there is sufficient rainfall and the crops are produced with the help of irrigation.

Irrigated farming is practised where rainfall is seasonal or insufficient for growing crop.

5. Subsistence agriculture and Commercial agriculture. 


Difference between Subsistence agriculture and Commercial agriculture

Subsistence Agriculture 

Commercial Agriculture

1. Subsistence farming is manual labour oriented system to get enough production to satisfy the needs of the farmer and his family.

Commercial agriculture is capital oriented  system meant for market so machines are used to get higher yields.

2. Fields are small so agriculture  operations are conducted on small scale. 

Fields are very big so it is done on big scale.

3. Common in India and China. 

It is common in developed countries like Canada and USA.

6. Intensive commercial farming and Extensive commercial farming. 


Difference between Intensive commercial farming and Extensive commercial farming

Intensive commercial farming 

Extensive commercial farming

1. Size of holdings are small. 

Size of holding are large.

2. Food crops predominate. 

Cash crop predominate.

3. Maximum capital, labour and skill is involved for making a small area 


Yield per acre is much less.

7. Geographical conditions and cultivation of rice and wheat. 


Difference between Geographical conditions and cultivation of rice and wheat



1. It is a Kharif crop sown in June and harvested in October.

Water logging conditions can be damaging for the crop.

2. During ripening stage the temperature should be 18°C – 32 °C. Mean temperature 24 °C.

It is a Rabi crop sown in October-November and harvested in March – April. Wheat needs a temperature of about 10 – 15 °C during the period of growth and 20 – 25°C during harvest.

3. Rice needs more than 100 cm of rainfall 

About 80 cm annual rainfall is ideal.

Data based Questions

1. Study the picture given above and answer the following questions: 

(i) Name the crop which is being planted. Give one benefit of this method of planting this crop. 

(ii) Mention the climatic conditions which favour the cultivation of the crop being planted.


(i) Rice plantation. It increases yields by 30% to 40%.

(ii) Rice requires mean temperatures from 25°C to 32°C and abundant rainfall from 150 to 200 cms. It thrives best where there is 5 to 10 cms of standing water in the fields.

Name the Following

1. Name the two important crop seasons in India.


The two important crop seasons in India are Rabi and Kharif.

2. Name the crops which are cultivated by transplanting method of cultivation.


Rice, Jute, Rubber.

3. Name the states in which rice is grown.


The main rice producing states are Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Bihar, Punjab, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Assam and Maharashtra.

4. Name the three crops that are grown in West Bengal in a year.


The three crops grown in a year in West Bengal are: 

  1. aus (autumn) 
  2. aman (winter) 
  3. boro (summer) 

5. Name the-high yielding varieties of wheat being produced in India.


High yielding varieties of wheat being produced in India are Sonalika and Kalyansona.

6. Name the wheat producing states of India.


Name the two states which are leading producers of wheat in India.


The important wheat producing states are Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh.

7. Name the three main varieties of millets in India.


Name three coarse grains grown in India. Why are they so called?


Name any two millet crops grown widely in India.


The three main varieties of millets in India are: Jowar, Bajra and Ragi.

8. Name the state that leads in the cultivation of jowar.


The important jowar-producing state is Maharashtra which accounts for nearly half of the Indian output. Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh are other notable producers of jowar.

9. Name the states where ragi is grown.


Ragi is mainly grown in southern parts of India. The main areas are Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. 

10. Name the important states where gram is grown.


Gram is mainly grown in Bihar, Maharashtra, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. The other minor producers are Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and West Bengal.

11. Name the important pulses grown in India.


The important pulses such as arhar, masur, gram and tur or peas are grown in India. 

12. Name a pulse crop cultivated in India. 

(i) During Kharif Season 

(ii) During Rabi Season


(i) Urad and Moong pulse crop is cultivated during Kharif season. 

(ii) Gram and Peas pulse crop is cultivated during Rabi season. 

13. Name a pulse which is grown in Rabi and Kharif season. 



14. Name the principal sugarcane producing areas in India.


The principal sugarcane producing areas in India are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana and Punjab.

15. Which state is the largest producer of sugarcane in India? 


Uttar Pradesh.

16. Name products of sugarcane.


Products of sugarcane are sugar, sugarcane juice, khandsari (powdered gur), gur or jaggery and icing sugar.

17. Name the important oilseeds produced in India.


The important oilseeds produced in India are groundnuts, sesame, castorseed, cottonseed, linseed, mustard, soyabean rapeseed and coconut.

18. Name four products other than edible oil which are obtained from oilseeds grown in India. 


  1. Soaps, 
  2. Medicines, 
  3. Cattle feed, 
  4. Perfumes. 

19. Name two non-edible oilseeds grown in India. 


(i) Linseed

(ii) Castor seed

20. Name the state which is the largest producer of castor seed. State one important use of each of its oil and oil cake.


Gujarat. Its oil is used to make toilet soaps and oil cake is a good manure.

21  (i) What climatic condition adversely affects the groundnut crop?

(ii) Name two nort-edible oilseeds grown.


(i) Excess water is injurious for the plant. It is also very sensitive to the ‘frost’. 

(ii) Non edible oil seeds are: 

  • Linseed
  • Castor seeds

22. Name the country which is the largest producer of sesame in the world.


India is the largest producer of sesame in the world.

23. Name the sesame producing states.


The states producing sesame are Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

24. Name the states where cotton seed is produced.


Cotton seed is produced in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Punjab, Karnataka, Haryana, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.

25.  Which state in India produces the largest quantity of raw cotton?



26. Name the state which grows long staple cotton and short staple cotton.


The states which grows long staple cotton are Punjab and Haryana. The short staple cotton is grown mainly in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.

27. Name the countries from where cotton is imported. Why?


India imports large quantity of long staple cotton from U.S.A., Kenya, U.A.R., and Sudan, as the production is not sufficient to meet the requirement of the country.

28.  Name the most important fibre crop in West Bengal.



29. Name the countries from where rubber is imported.


Rubber is imported from Indonesia, Malaysia and Sri Lanka.

30. Name the state which grows most of India’s natural rubber.


Kerala grows most of India’s natural rubber accounting for three-fourth of the Indian output. 

31.  Name three regions where tea is grown in South India.


  1. Nilgiri hills
  2. Annamalai hills
  3. Coorg district

32. Name the largest tea producing country in the world.


India is the largest tea producing country in the world.

33. Name the largest exporting tea port in the world.


Kolkata (Calcutta) is the largest exporting tea port in the world. 

34. Name two main varieties of coffee grown in India?


The two varieties grown in India are: 

  1. Coffee Arabic 
  2. Coffee robusta 

35. Mention the areas of production of the coffee plant.


Coffee is produced in Karnataka, Kerala and on the Nilgiris in Tamil Nadu. 

36. Name the states producing raw silk.


They are Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Assam and West Bengal.

37. What is silk farming known as?



38. Explain two important characteristics of plantation farming. Name one important plantation crop.


  1. In plantation farming a single crop is grown.
  2. Chemical fertilizer, herbicides and insecticides are extensively used as these crops are grown for profit. Tea is an important plantation crop.

39. Name the type of soil required for the growth of coffee plant.


Coffee needs a rich well drained soil preferably derived from the weathering of igneous or volcanic rocks. For better yield the soil must have a sufficient quantity of humus.

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