ICSE Revision Notes for Minerals in India Class 10 Geography

Chapter Name

Minerals in India

Topics Covered

  • Minerals found in India
  • Petroleum
  • Iron Ore
  • Manganese
  • Bauxite
  • Limestone
  • Conventional Sources of Energy
  • Natural gas
  • Hydel Power
  • Non-conventional Sources of Energy
  • Tidal Energy
  • Geothermal Energy
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Biogas

Related Study


Minerals are naturally occurring, homogeneous substances with definite chemical composition. Based on chemical and physical properties, minerals can be divided into metallic and non-metallic minerals.

Differences between metallic and non-metallic minerals:

Metallic Minerals

Non-metallic Minerals

Metallic minerals contain metal in the raw form.

Non-metallic minerals do not contain metals.

These metals are generally associated with igneous rocks.

These metals are generally associated with sedimentary rocks.

They are usually hard and have a shine of their own.

They are not usually hard and have no shine of their own.

Examples: Iron, copper, bauxite, tin

Examples: Salt, coal, mica, clay

Characteristics of Minerals 

  • Minerals are not evenly distributed on the surface of the Earth. 
  • Minerals are exhaustible. Because they cannot be replenished immediately, they need to be conserved. 
  • All minerals do not have uniform properties. They have different chemical compositions. 
  • Minerals differ with each other in colour, lustre and texture. 

Minerals in India 

India is rich in many minerals because of its varied geological structure. Some commonly found minerals in India are coal, bauxite, mica, iron ore and manganese. 


  • Coal occurs in the sedimentary rocks. It was formed when plants and ferns were buried in the swamp forests. Heat and pressure exerted by many layers which were formed over these decayed plants resulted in many physical and chemical changes. 
  • Coal contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and small amounts of phosphorus and sulphur. 
  • Depending on the amount of carbon, moisture and volatile matter present, coal can be classified into four categories: anthracite, bituminous, lignite and peat. 

1. Anthracite 

  • It is the hardest and highest quality coal as it has a carbon content of over 90% and burns slowly without smoke. 
  • It leaves very little ash behind and has a high heating value.

2. Bituminous

  • Its carbon content varies from 50% to 80%. 
  • It is hard and black. It makes up about 80% of the total coal output in the world. 
  • It is widely used for household purposes. 
  • It is popularly used in various industries. High grade bituminous coal is used in blast furnaces for smelting iron. 

3. Lignite

  • It is a low grade coal also known as brown coal.
  • It is soft with high moisture content. 

4. Peat

  • It has the least carbon content and is inferior to the other three varieties of coal. 
  • It represents the first stage of transformation of wood into coal. 

Uses of Coal 

  • It is used in thermal power plants for generating electricity. 
  • It is used as a source of heat and energy for domestic purposes. 
  • It is used for manufacturing iron and steel. It is used as raw material in many industries. 
  • Chemicals such as ammonia and benzol are obtained as by-products from the gases which are released when the coal is burnt in a closed chamber to get metallurgical coke.


In India, coal is found in two main fields—Gondwana coalfields and tertiary coalfields. Bituminous coal is generally found in India. 

Gondwana Coalfields 

  • It accounts for 98% of the total coal reserves in India. It is nearly free of moisture. 
  • It is found in the river valleys of Damodar, Mahanadi and Godavari. 
  • Gondwana coal deposits are found in West Bengal, Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh. 

Tertiary Coalfields 

  • The coal found in the tertiary coalfields has high moisture content. 
  • These fields are generally found in Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya and Nagaland. 


Petroleum is a mixture of hydrocarbon compounds. It is found in underground reservoirs in sedimentary rock formations such as sandstone, shale and limestone. Petrol, diesel, tar, kerosene, LPG and paraffin wax are some products which are obtained during the refining process.

Uses of Petroleum 

  • It is used as a fuel and plays a major role in land, sea and air transport.
  • After refining, petroleum is used in the production of various petrochemicals such as gasoline, lubricating oil and printing ink. 
  • It is used for power generation. 


  • It is found in Mumbai High which is about 176 km off Mumbai in the Arabian Sea. 
  • Digboi oil field in Assam is the biggest oil field in India. 
  • Khambhat basin in Gujarat is the main oil field. Other important oil field reserves are Kalol, Koyali, Kosamba, Sanand, Kathana, Ankleshwar and Navgaon. 
  • There are 21 oil refineries in India. The Reliance Petroleum Limited at Jamnagar in Gujarat was the first oil refinery in the private sector. The Digboi oil refinery is the oldest refinery in India. 

Iron Ore 

Names of iron ores and their characteristics:

Varieties of Iron Ore




It is known as ‘red ore’.

It contains 60–70% of pure iron.

Odisha, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka and Maharashtra


It is known as ‘black ore’.

It is the best quality of iron ore as it contains more than 70% of iron.

It possesses magnetic property and hence is called magnetite.

Tamil Nadu and Karnataka


It is of inferior quality as it contains 35–50% of iron.

It is yellow brown.

Garhwal in Uttarakhand, Mirzapur district in Uttar Pradesh and Kangra Valley in Himachal Pradesh

Main iron ore deposits in India:





Bailadilla in Dantewada and Durg district

Supply deposits to the Bhilai Iron and Steel Plant


Keonjhar, Mayurbhanj, Sambalpur, Sundergarh, Cuttack, Koratpur

Supply deposits to steel plants located at Durgapur, Bokaro, Jamshedpur, Asansol and Rourkela


Bababudan Hills in Chikmaglur, Sandur, Bellary, Hospet, Shimoga and Chitradurga districts

Supply raw materials to Bhadravati iron works


North Goa


Andhra Pradesh

Anantapur, Khammam, Krishna, Kurnool, Kadapa and Nellore


Tamil Nadu

Salem, North Arcot, Tiruchirappalli, Coimbatore and Madurai



Ratnagiri and Chandrapur districts



Moriza in Bhilwada and Udaipur districts



It is a black, hard metal which is mainly used as a raw material for smelting iron ore and is used for manufacturing ferro alloys. 

Uses of Manganese 

  • It is an important raw material in the iron and steel industry as it is used for hardening steel and prevents it from rusting. 
  • It is used in dry cell batteries. 
  • It is used in forming many alloys. 
  • It is used in chemical, glass and electrical industries. 


Main deposits of manganese in India are located in the following states: 



Andhra Pradesh

Adilabad, Vishakhapatnam and Vizianagaram




Singhbhum, Palamau and Chaibasa


Sandur, Shimoga, Chitradurga, Bellary, North Kanara, Tumkur, Belgaum and Davangere

Madhya Pradesh

Chhindwara, Balaghat, Mandla, Jabalpur


Nagpur and Bhandara


Keonjhar, Mayurbhanj, Talcher, Sundargarh, Bonai and Koratpur


Banswara, Udaipur and Pali


It is an oxide of aluminium.

Uses of Bauxite 

  • Aluminium is extracted from bauxite. It is lightweight, strong and rust-resistant metal. 
  • Aluminium is used in aircraft, automobiles, shipping industry and household appliances. 
  • Because aluminium is a good conductor of electricity, it is used in the electrical industry. 


Main deposits of bauxite in India are located in the following states:




Mopa and Pernem


Kalahandi and Sambalpur


Jamnagar, Kaira, Surat and Kachchh

Madhya Pradesh

Jabalpur, Balaghat, Shahdol, Mandla and Amarkantak Plateau


Durg, Bilaspur, Raigarh


Palamau, Ranchi


Thane, Kolhapur, Ratnagiri, Satara


Belgaum, mainly at Karle Hills

Tamil Nadu

Salem, Nilgiri, Madurai, Coimbatore

The largest integrated aluminium plant is located at Renukoot in Uttar Pradesh. It gets its supply of bauxite from Amarkantak Plateau and Ranchi.


It is a non-metallic mineral. It is formed by the deposition and hardening of skeletons, remains of animals and shells. It is found in almost every state of India.

Uses of Limestone 

  • It is used as a flux in the iron and steel industry. 
  • It is mainly used in the cement industry. 
  • It is used in manufacturing quicklime and slaked lime. 
  • It is used to suppress methane explosions in underground coal mines. 
  • It is used in the production of chemicals, paper, glass and fertilisers.

Conventional Sources of Energy 

1. Coal

Coal is an important mineral in India. It occurs as a sedimentary rock in association with carbonaceous shale, sandstone and fine clay. Coal was formed by the decomposition of large land plants and trees buried under the Earth about 300 million years ago. Sediments began to get deposited over the pile of trees and plants. The resultant heat and pressure resulted in physical and chemical change leading to the formation of coal.

Depending upon the amount of carbon and moisture content coal can be divided into four main types. These are: 

Distribution and Uses of Varieties of Coal in India 

Variety of Coal




Jammu and Kashmir

Ideal for domestic use as it is a smokeless fuel.

It is used for metallurgical processes and in iron and steel industry.


Gondwana coal fields

Known as cooking coal as it is used to produce coke, coal gas and steam coal.

High grade bituminous coal is also used for domestic purposes.


Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, West Bengal and Puducherry

Used for the generation of electricity.


Nilgiri mountains, Kashmir valley and swampy areas of coastal plains


Advantages of using Coal 

  • It is an important source of power for running machines, trains, ships and dynamos. ∙ Coal is used in the manufacturing iron and steel. 
  • It is a source of direct heat for domestic purposes, burning of bricks, tiles and in iron and brass factories. 
  • When coal is burnt in a closed chamber, a variety of chemicals such as ammonia and benzol are obtained as by-products. 

Disadvantages of using Coal

  • The calorific value of coal found in India is low.
  • Coal reserves in India are scattered and limited. 
  • Cost of production and transportation of coal is very high. 
  • Burning of coal results in large scale pollution.

There are two main coalfields in India. Gondwana coalfields and tertiary coalfields. Gondwana coalfields accounts for 98% of the total reserves of coal in India. The coalfield is largely confined to the river valleys like Damodar, Mahanadi and Godavari. The Gondwana coalfields are found in the states of West Bengal, Jharkhand, Odisha, Chattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.

Coal found in the tertiary coal field has high moisture content. They are found in Assam, Arunanchal Pradesh, Meghalaya and Nagaland. The Neyveli lignite field in Tamil Nadu is the largest lignite deposit in South India.


Petroleum is an important mineral resource. It is known as ‘liquid gold’ because not even a tiniest part of crude petroleum goes waste or remains unused. Petroleum is found in underground reservoirs in sedimentary rock formations like sandstone, shale and limestone. 

Petrol, diesel. Kerosene, tar, Liquefied Petroleum Gas, lubricants and paraffin wax are some products which are obtained during the refining process.

Advantages of Petroleum

  • It has a high density. One kg of oil can generate 10,000 kcal of energy. 
  • Petroleum is liquid in form and can be transported through pipes or vehicles. 
  • It is used as a fuel. Its by-products that are used a fuel include diesel, gasoline, jet fuel, kerosene and LPG.
  • Petroleum after refining is used for the production of various petrochemical products such as synthetic rubber, synthetic fiber, PVC phenol, gasoline, varnishes, lubricating oil and paraffin wax.
  • Petroleum is also used for power generation.


  • Petroleum is a non-renewable source of energy. Hence, its availability is limited. Because of ever increasing demands, petroleum resources are fast depleting. 
  • Extracting and burning of petroleum generates greenhouse gases that contribute to environment pollution and global warming. 
  • Because of petroleum’s limited supply and high demand, the cost is high. 
  • It is highly inflammable and can cause fire.
  • Spilling of oil in water not only pollute the oceans but also leads to the death of number of marine animals. 

Oil Refineries 

Crude oil is refined and processed in refineries to produce light distilleries like gasoline, LPG and naphtha; middle distilleries like diesel and kerosene and heavy products such as bitumen, petroleum and coke. 

The Reliance Petroleum Limited at Jamnagar in Gujarat was the first refinery in the private sector. Most of the refineries are located near the oilfield or near the coast to minimise the cost of transport.


  • Mumbai High is an offshore oil field located 176 km off Mumbai shore in the Arabian Sea. Mumbai High is called so because of the height of the syncline of the rock structure in which the oil has been struck. 
  • It is the most productive oil field and has a reserve of 5 crore tonnes of oil. 
  • Digboi oil field in upper Assam is the biggest oilfield in India.
  • In Gujarat, Cambay Basin is an important oil bearing site. The other important oil bearing sites in the state are Kalol, Koyali, Kosamba, Sanand, Anklaeshwar and Navgaon. 

Natural Gas 

Natural gas occurs in association with mineral oil. It is a fossil fuel. It is found along with the deposits of oil because it has been formed by decomposing remains of dead animals and plants buried under the earth.


More than three-fourths of India’s natural gas comes from Mumbai High, the rest is produced in Assam, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan and Tripura.


  • It is an environment friendly fuel as it is made up of methane which results in less carbon emission. 
  • It is easier to preserve the fuel as it can be stored and transported through pipelines, cylinders or in tankers on land and sea. 
  • It is cheaper fuel than diesel or gasoline. 
  • It is used for producing hydrogen, ammonia for fertilisers, paints and plastics.


  • Leaks in natural gas are extremely dangerous. Such leaks may result in explosion and fire. Leakage of natural gas can have serious consequences as methane is more dangerous than carbon dioxide.
  • The natural gas is s fossil fuel and hence is a non-renewable source of energy. 
  • The infrastructure requiring the setting up the production process and distribution of gas is very expensive. 
  • Natural gas when used as a fuel in vehicles provide less mileage than gasoline.

Hydel Power

Electricity that is generated from water is known as hydel power or hydroelectricity. It is generated when water stored in a dam falls from a great height on a turbine whose blades then move with a great force. This in turn rotates the generator and produce electricity. The hydro power projects are multipurpose projects because they are used for irrigation, water supply for domestic and industrial consumption and to control floods.


  • It is a clean, non-polluting source of energy. It does not release any toxic gases. 
  • It is a renewable source of energy which can be repeatedly used. 
  • The dams built to produce hydroelectricity help in saving and restoring water. 
  • It is economic and sustainable. The cost of electricity generation is cheaper than the electricity produced from fossil fuels and nuclear power. 


  • The initial cost for building dams for generating hydroelectricity is extremely high. 
  • Building a large dam results in destruction and submergence of forests on a large scale. 
  • Building of huge dams may trigger earthquake in an area. 
  • Dam building may displace people from their villages. They may also lose their source of livelihood. 

Bhakra Nangal Dam 

This project is a joint venture of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan governments. The Bhakra dam is the second highest dam in India. Gobind Sagar is the name of the reservoir of the Bhakra dam. With a storage capacity of 9.3 billion cubic meters, it is the third largest water reservoir in India.

The Bhakra- Nangal project comprises of the following: 

  • The Bhakra Dam: It is the second highest and the third largest water reservoir in India. 
  • The Nangal Dam: It is constructed at Nangal at river Satluj in Punjab. It supplies water to Bhakra irrigation canal. 
  • Power Houses: There are four power houses. 
  • Bhakra Canal System: It irrigates the lands of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan. The aim of the project Bhakra Nangal project are:
    • Provides water for irrigation
    • Generate hydro-electricity
    • Prevent flooding from Sutlej-Beas rivers 

Hirakud Dam 

This dam is built across the river Mahanadi. It was one of the earliest multipurpose river project that started after independence. Its construction was completed in 1953. It is the longest major earthen dam in Asia. The dam also forms the biggest artificial lake in Asia. There are two observational towers on the dam at each side. One is Gandhi Minar and the other is Nehru Minar. 

Benefits of the Hirakud Dam 

  • The dam helps control floods in the Mahanadi delta ad irrigates 75,000 sq. km of land. 
  • The project provides irrigation to the ‘kharif’ and ‘rabi’ crops in districts of Sambalpur, Bargarh, Bolangir and Subarnpur.
  • The dam can generate upto 307.5 MW of electrical power through its two power plants at Burla and Chiplima.
  • Moreover, the project provides flood protection to 9, 5000 km2of delta area in districts of Cuttack and Puri.

Non-Conventional Sources of Energy 

Non-conventional sources of energy are also known as renewable or alternative sources of energy. These resources have been developed in the recent past as an alternative to conventional or non-renewable sources of energy. Some examples are wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, tidal energy and bio gas. Non-conventional resources are known as energy resources of the future.

1. Solar Energy

India is a tropical country which gets adequate sunlight. Most parts of the country have 300 clear sunny days in a year.

In India, solar energy is generated in the following ways: 

Solar cells 

Also known as photovoltaic cells, the solar cells are made of thin wafers of semi-conductor materials from silicon and gallium. When sun’s energy falls on them, electricity is generated.

  • Solar cells are widely used in calculators, electronic watches, street lightening, traffic signals and water pumps.
  • A group of solar cells joined together in a solar panel can give a large amount of solar energy. 

Solar Cooker

  • The solar cookers use solar heat by reflecting solar radiations with the help of a mirror on to a glass sheet which cover the black insulated box.
  • The raw food is kept in the black insulated box in the solar cooker. The box is insulated from outside so that heat does not escapes. 
  • The heated box emits red radiation which is retained because of the opaque glass. As a result, the significant amount of the energy entering the oven is retained. 
  • Of late, spherical reflectors are being used instead of plane mirror because the former has more heating effect and has greater efficiency.

Solar Water Heater 

  • Water can be heated using solar energy. Sunlight is allowed to fall on flat plate collectors which are shallow rectangular trays filled with water. 
  • It consists of an insulated box painted black from inside with a glass lid to collect and store solar heat.
  • In the box, there is black painted copper coil through which the cold water flows in. When the coil gets heated, the water too gets heated and flows into a storage tank. 

Advantages of Solar Energy 

  • It is a cleaner and a renewable source of energy. 
  • It can be used for various purposes such as to produce electricity in areas which do not have an access to energy grid and to distill water in regions which have limited clean water supplies.
  • Solar energy systems do not require a lot of maintenance.
  • It saves fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum and also reduces energy bills. 

2. Wind Energy 

Wind is an inexpensive, reliable and a cleaner source of energy.

Generation of Wind Energy 

  • Windmills are used for generating electricity. The blades of the wind mill rotate due to the force of the wind. This rotational motion of the blades is used for driving a number of machines such as water pumps, flourmills and electric generators. 
  • Several windfarms are installed in a definite pattern in clusters called ‘wind farms’. Wind farms are generally installed in coastal regions, open grasslands and hilly regions. The Indian wind programme is the fifth largest in the world.
  • In India, largest wind farm cluster is located from Nagarcoil to Madurai in Tamil Nadu. Important wind farms are also located in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Kerala, Lakshadweep and Maharashtra.


  • It is a renewable source of energy. 
  • It does not produces pollution. Thus, it is a cleaner source of energy. 
  • It reduces our dependence on the fossil fuels. 
  • Wind turbines can be built on existing agricultural farms. This greatly benefits the economy in rural areas, where most of the best wind sites are found. 
  • Land owners can earn additional income by installing wind turbines on land that can be used for domestic consumption.

3. Tidal Energy 

Tides are caused due to the periodic rise and fall of ocean waters produced by the attraction of the moon and the sun. This rise and fall of ocean waters produces a large amount of energy known as tidal energy

Generation of Tidal Energy 

  • The tidal energy is harnessed by constructing a tidal barrage.
  • During high tide, the sea water flows into the reservoir of the barrage and turns the turbine which in turn produces electricity by rotating generators.
  • The reverse process takes place during the low tide. The sea water stored in a barrage reservoirs flows out into the sea. During this process, the flowing water turns the turbines. 
  • In India, the prospective site for exploiting tidal energy are Gulf of Kutch, Cambay and Sunderbans. Other suitable sites are located near Lakshadweep Islands and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

4. Geothermal Energy 

When the heat obtained from the earth is used for generating electricity, it is known as geothermal electricity. As the interiors of the Earth are hot, the heat energy may at times surface itself in the form of hot springs. This energy can be used for the generation of electricity. 

Generation of Geothermal Energy 

  • The extremely high temperatures in the deeper geothermal reservoirs are used for the generation of electricity. 
  • Hot water is pumped from deep underground through a well under high pressure. 
  • When water reaches the surface, the pressure is dropped that causes the water to turn into steam. The steam spins the turbine which then rotates a generator and produces energy.
  • The steam cools off in the cooling tower and condenses back to water. The cooled water is then pumped back again under the surface of the earth to begin the process again. 

Advantages of Geothermal Energy

  • Because of its extensive distribution, geothermal energy is easily accessible. ∙ It is environment friendly because of the low sulphur emission, carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases.
  • It is not influenced by weather and seasons. 
  • It is independent of external supply and demand effects and fluctuations of exchange rates. 


  • India has a potential to produce about 12,000MW of geothermal energy. 
  • In India, geothermal plants are located in Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh and Puga valley in Ladakh. The hot springs have been grouped together and termed as different geothermal provinces.
  • These regions are the Himalayan geothermal province, Naga-Lushai geothermal province, Andaman and Nicobar Islands geothermal province and Cambay graben, Son-Narmada-Tapti graben, West coast, Damodar Valley, Mahanadi Valley and Godavari Valley. 

5. Nuclear Power 

Nuclear power is obtained from energy stored in the nuclei of atoms of naturally occurring radioactive elements such as uranium, thorium and plutonium.

Generation of Nuclear Energy 

  • Nuclear fission is the process in which a large nucleus splits into two smaller nuclei with the release of energy.
  • Nuclear fission produces heat which is then used for heating water and producing steam. 
  • The steam turns the turbine which in turn is used to run generators resulting in the production of electricity.
  • Two main types of reactors used to generate electricity are the pressurised and boiling water reactors. In the former, because the water is pressurised, it does not boil. 
  • This heated water is circulated through tubes in generators which then turns the turbine. 
  • In boiling water reactor, the water is boiled due to the heat produced by nuclear reaction and turns into steam to turn the turbine.
  • Water is reused in both systems. 

Distribution of Nuclear Energy

Nuclear power is the fourth largest source of electricity in India. India has 21 nuclear reactors. Uranium and thorium are used for generating nuclear power. The Monazite sands of Kerala are also rich in thorium.

Advantages of Nuclear Energy

  • Nuclear energy is a renewable source of energy and it reduced the dependency on fossil fuels for the generation of energy. 
  • It saves on the cost of raw materials. Its transportation and handling cost is also minimal. 
  • It initiates a continuous process of energy production. A nuclear power plant generates electricity for almost 90% of annual time. 
  • It reduces price vitality of other fuels such as petrol.

6. Biogas 

Biogas is a renewable source of energy which is generated by anaerobic degradation (breaking down of organic matter by bacteria in the absence of oxygen) of plant and animal wastes in presence of water. Biogas is composed of methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and hydrogen sulphide.

Generation of Biogas 

Advantages of Biogas

  • Biogas is a clean, non-polluting and cheap source of energy.
  • There is direct supply of gas from the plant, therefore, there is no storage problem. 
  • The sludge left behind is a rich fertiliser containing bacterial biomass. 
  • The Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources has been promoting the Biogas Programme in India. It has set up a number of bio gas plant across the country.

Previous Post Next Post