NCERT Notes for Class 9 Math Chapter 14 Statistics Notes
Class 9 Maths Chapter 14 Statistics Notes
Chapter Name  Statistics Notes 
Class  CBSE Class 9 
Textbook Name  Statistics Class 9 
Related Readings 

Statistics
Statistics is the study of collection, organization, analysis and interpretation of data.
Data
A distinct piece of information in the form of fact or figures collected or represented for any specific purpose is called Data. In Latin, it is known as the Datum.
Collection of Data
Data are generally of two types
 Primary Data
 Secondary Data
Primary Data
Data collected from any firsthand experience for an explicit use or purpose is known as Primary Data
Secondary data
Data collected by any third party for a different purpose other than the user is known as Secondary Data.
Presentation of Data
After collecting data it is important to present it in a meaningful manner. There are many ways to present data.
1. Ungrouped Data Raw Data If there is no change in the data and it is in the same form as it is collected then it is said to be raw data.
Example: The marks obtained by 10 students in a Sanskrit test are
55 36 95 73 60 42 25 78 75 62
Range The difference between the highest and the lowest number of data is called Range.  Frequency Distribution When the number of items is large then we can convert it into the tabular form which is called a Frequency Distribution Table.
Frequency is the number of times the item comes in the table.
To present the very large number of items in a data we use grouped distribution table.
 Class Interval –The group used to classify the data is called the class interval i.e. 20 – 30, 30 – 40.
 Upper Limit  In each class interval, the greatest number is the upperclass limit.
 Lower Limit – In each class interval, the smallest number is the lower class limit.
 Class Size – It is the difference between the upper limit and the lower limit i.e. 10.
 Class Mark – The midpoint of each class interval is the class mark.
Grouped data could be of two types as below:
(i) Inclusive or discontinuous Frequency Distribution – If the upper limit of one class is different from the lower limit next class then it is said to be an Inclusive or discontinuous Frequency Distribution.
(ii) Exclusive or continuous Frequency Distribution – If the upper limit of one class is the same as the lower limit of the next class then it is said to be exclusive or continuous Frequency Distribution
Graphical Representation of Data
As you know a picture is better than thousand words so represent data in an easier way is to represent it graphically. Some of the methods of representing the data graphically are
1. Bar GraphIt is the easiest way to represent the data in the form of rectangular bars so it is called Bar graph.
 The thickness of each bar should be the same.
 The space between in bar should also be same.
 The height of the bar should be according to the numerical data to be represented.
Example: Represent the average monthly rainfall of Nepal for the first six months in the year 2014.
Month 
Jan 
Feb 
Mar 
Apr 
May 
Jun 
Average rainfall 
45 
65 
40 
60 
75 
30 
Solution
 On the xaxis mark the name of the months.
 On the yaxis mark the class interval which we have chosen.
 Then mark the average rainfall respective to the name of the month by the vertical bars.
 The bars could be of any width but should be same.
 This is the required bar graph.
It is like the Bar graph only but it is used in case of a continuous class interval.
 The class intervals are to be taken along an xaxis.
 The height represents the frequencies of the respective class intervals.
Example: Draw the histogram of the following frequency distribution.
Daily earnings (in Rs) 
700 – 750 
750 – 800 
800 – 850 
850 – 900 
900 – 950 
950 – 1000 
No. of stores 
6 
9 
2 
7 
11 
5 
Solution
 Mark the daily earnings on the xaxis.
 Mark the no. of stores on the yaxis.
 As the scale is starting from 700 so we will mark the zigzag to show the break.
 Mark the daily earnings through the vertical bars.
To draw the frequency polygon
 First, we need to draw a histogram
 Then join the midpoint of the top of the bars a line segment and the figure so obtained is required frequency polygon.
 The midpoint of the first bar is to be joined with the midpoint of the imaginary interval of the xaxis
 The midpoint of the last bar is to be joined with the midpoint of the next interval of the xaxis.
Example: Draw the frequency polygon of a city in which the following weekly observations were made in a study on the cost of living index without histogram.























Step 1: First of all we need to calculate the class mark of each class interval.
Step 2: Take the suitable scale and represent the class marks on the xaxis.
Step 3: Take the suitable scale and represent the frequency distribution on the yaxis.
Step 4: To complete the frequency polygon we will join it with the xaxis before the first class and after the last interval.
Step 5: Now plot the respective points and join to make the frequency polygon.
Measures of Central Tendency
To make all the study of data useful, we need to use measures of central tendencies. Some of the tendencies are
1. MeanThe mean is the average of the number of observations. It is calculated by dividing the sum of the values of the observations by the total number of observations.
It is represented by x bar or.
The meanof n values x_{1} , x_{2} , x_{3} , ...... x_{n} is given by
Mean of Grouped Data (Without Class Interval)
If the data is organized in such a way that the frequency is given but there is no class interval then we can calculate the mean by
where, x_{1} , x_{2} , x_{3} , ...... x_{n} are the observations
f_{1} , f_{2} , f_{3} , ...... f_{n} are the respective frequencies of the given observations.
Example























Here, x_{1} , x_{2} , x_{3} , x_{4} , and x_{5} are 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 respectively. and f_{1} , f_{2} , f_{3} , f_{4} , f_{5} are 40 , 60 , 30 , 50 , 20 respectively.
2. Median
The median is the middle value of the given number of the observation which divides into exactly two parts.
For median of ungrouped data, we arrange it in ascending order and then calculated as follows
Median (Average)
Let we consider an ungroup/raw data as follow:
15 
72 
44 
26 
66 
38 
91 
Your FIRST step is to arrange them in ascending order like
15 
26 
38 
44 
66 
72 
91 
Then check what is the middle value of the data
15 
26 
38 
44 
66 
72 
91 
 If the number of the observations is odd then the median will be . As in the above figure the no. of observations is 7 i.e. odd, so the median will be term.
= 4th term.
The fourth term is 44.  If the number of observations is even then the median is the average of n/2 and (n/2) +1 term.
Example: Find the median of the following data.
6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 4, 8, 12
(i) First, we need to arrange it in ascending order.
4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 12, 13
(ii) The no. of observation is 8. As the no. of observation is even the median is the average of n/2 and (n/2)+1.
(iii)
(iv) 4th term is 8 and the 5th term is 10.
(v) So the median Image
The mode is the value of the observation which shows the number that occurs frequently in data i.e. the number of observations which has the maximum frequency is known as the Mode.
Example: Find the Mode of the following data:
15, 20, 22, 25, 30, 20,15, 20,12, 20
Solution
Here, the number 20 appears the maximum number of times so
Mode = 20.
Remark: The empirical relation between the three measures of central tendency is
3 Median = Mode + 2 Mean