NCERT Notes Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 1 Resources and Development

NCERT Notes Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 1 Resources and Development

Chapter 1 Resources and Development NCERT Notes

Chapter Name

Resources and Development Notes


CBSE Class 10

Textbook Name

Contemporary India Class 10

Related Readings

  • Notes for Class 10
  • Notes for Class 10 Geography
  • NCERT Solutions for Resources and Development 


We live in an environment with so many resources: soil, wood, Solar cell, mountains, Sun, windmills, coal, papers, and so many other things. Can you define what a resource is? It is everything available in our environment that can make us happy in our daily needs, which gives access to technology. It is easy, and it also accepts culture, also called resources.

Resources can be divided into the following ways:

  • Origin- It is biotic and abiotic
  • Unused- it is useable and also non-usable
  • Ownership- Separate community, national Unused, and international.
  • Development- It is essential, and a lot of improvement in stock and reserves.

Types of Resources

Here are the two main types of resources, which is the basis of origin:

  • Biotic Resources: Biotic resource comes from the planet and gives lives—for example, Plants, species, and human beings.
  • Abiotic Resources: It is based on non-living things: Water, minerals, metals, wind, and solar energy.

Based on Exhaustibility

  1. Renewable Resources: Renewable resources are which can be used or copied by physical, Chemical, or mechanical procedures. For example, water, wind, solar energy, forests, and Wildlife.
  2. Not used Resources: This type of resource will need years to get into their formation—Minerals, Fossil fuels.

Based on Ownership

Here are the four different types of Ownership:

  1. Individual Resources: An Individual resource has been purchased by a single that is called Individual resources. For example, plots, houses, etc., that is purchased by that person.
  2. Community Owned Resources: These resources are connected to everyone in the community. For example, crowded parks, picnics spots are bought by an organization.
  3. National Resources: This type of resource comes under the nation which is called the national resources. Therefore, each resource belongs to the country.
  4. International Resources: This resource has been lying above 200kms in the exclusive economic zone across the oceans called International Resources. Nobody is using the resources without asking for international colleges.

Based on the status of Development

Here are the five levels of developments.

  1. Potential Resources: There are a few resources that are seen in a state. Hence these have not been used. For instance, Rajasthan and Gujarat’s conditions have a massive part in developing wind and solar energy.
  2. Developed Resources: These types of resources are looked over, and their quality and amount have been checked for use.
  3. Stock: These resources have been looked over; hence you will not use them because of the less of technology. For instance: water= Hydrogen+ Oxygen), which is a rich way of energy.
  4. Reserves: this resource is used for meeting the needs in the future. For instance: There is Water in the shovel, forest, etc.
  5. Development of Resources: Resources are essential for each human being to survive. Here is the truth that the resources are coming from gifts of nature. Hence, we as humans must use them randomly, and this might give some huge problems:
    • The use of these resources is making the greedy happy for a few single people.
    • Total numbers of resources are in a few hands, divided into society by rich and poor.
    • Draining of the uses has given the whole world problem, including global warming, ozone layer uses, the pollution of the environment, etc.

Resource Planning

Resource planning is a very confusing procedure which has:

  • Checking and marking the resources all over the states: This makes us used mapping and having qualitative and quantitative amounts and the correct amount of the resources.
  • It has an excellent planning structure done by the correct technology, skills, and the college set up for building the plans. Trying to differentiate the development plans from the full national development plans.

Land Resource

The land is a natural environment at the most important:

  • It gives us pure vegetation such as Wildlife, human life, economic activities, and transportation and communication systems.
  • The land has a limited size; hence, we should use them correctly.

Land Resource in India

  • 43% of the land area is empty, which gives a massive space for agriculture and industry.
  • 30% of the country’s total area is full of a hill, ensuring that the water flows in the river and gives guests and ecological aspects items.
  • 27% of the country is the central state that will provide us with rich minerals, fossil fuels, and forests.

Land Use Pattern in India

What is the land used in India?

  • Physical factors include geography, weather, and the types of soil.
  • Human factors include the total amount of population, technology access, and culture and tradition, etc.
  • Land uses information; it is only for 93%, which is the total area because it is mostly used in the north-east states such as Assam, which has not been done completely.
  • Therefore, few areas such as Jammu and Kashmir, which are covered by Pakistan and China, have not been used.

Land Degradation and Conservation Measures

Land Degradation and conservation measures mean cutting down trees, above grazing, mining, and quarrying, divided in the land.

 The measures to control land Degradation? 

  • Planting a shelter of plants.
  • Have limits on over grazing.
  • Steady by a growing dune in thorny bushes.
  • Systematic management of waste lands.
  • Control of mining activities.

Soil as a Resource

What is soil? 

Soil is essential to the use of a natural resource. It is small plant growth, and it also helps in various types of living organisms on the earth.

Classification of Soils

Here are the different soil formation types, color, thickness, texture, and age, Chemical and physical ideas, divided into various kinds of soils.

1. Alluvial Soils

  • Alluvial soils have come from the plains that are made from alluvial soil.
  • These are also seen in the eastern coastal areas: Mahanadi, the Godavari, Krishna, and the Kaveri rivers.
  • Healthy soil; hence, it is suitable for agriculture.
  • Alluvial soils are more cultivated and more populated.
  • Alluvial soils are rich in Potash, phosphoric acid, and lime, ideal for grown in sugarcane, wine, oats, and different types of cereals and pulses.

2. Black Soil

  • Black in color and it is called Regur soils.
  • Suitable for growing cotton and it is called black cotton soil.
  • It is found in Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh, also the Godavari and Krishna Valleys.
  • Made up of fine clay material.
  • It is excellent for holding moisture.
  • Rich in protein carbonate magnesium, Potash, and lime.

3. Red and Yellow Soils:

  • This soil is found in less rainfall in the eastern and southern parts of Deccan state.
  • This soil is found in Odisha, Chhattisgarh, south parts in the Ganga state, and at the western side’s mountain hills.
  • It has a reddish color because of the spoilt iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks.

4. Laterite Soil:

  • It is found in cold temperatures and so much rainfall.
  • Karnataka, Kerala, Chennai, Madhya Pradesh, and in mountains states of Odisha and Assam.
  • Suitable for farming with correct manures and fertilizers.
  • It is less humid content because decomposers, such as bacteria, get spoilt because of sunlight.

5. Arid Soils

  • It is in the western parts of Rajasthan.
  • After keeping the soils, it is easy to farm.
  • Less fertilizer and moisture due to a dry climate, the high temperature will make it disappear quickly.
  • Salt intake is more can use high and standard salt by evaporating the water.

6. Forest Soils

  • Forest soil is found in mountain areas and hills where there are enough rains.
  • Aspects will be different, which is based on location.
  • Fine sands are located in the valley sides and coarse in the upper areas.
  • It is divided into smaller parts on the river rooftop and alluvial fans, which can be cultivated.

Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation

  • Pure way of Soil Erosion: wind, glacier, and water, which has to lead to soil disappearing.
  • Human tasks: cutting down trees, over-cutting, building, mining, etc.; divides the earth, which dissolves.
  • What are the measures to control soil evaporation?
  • Cut cropping
  • Growing house belts.
  • We can do this in the mountain areas by cultivating and doing rooftop farming.
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