NCERT Notes Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries

NCERT Notes Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries

Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries NCERT Notes

Chapter Name

Manufacturing Industries Notes


CBSE Class 10

Textbook Name

Contemporary India Class 10

Related Readings

  • Notes for Class 10
  • Notes for Class 10 Geography
  • NCERT Solutions for Manufacturing Industries  
  1. Why do you think manufacturing is a necessary activity?
  2. What makes a location favourable enough for an industry to be set up and flourish? Which one is the most important according to you?
  3. How can industry modernise agriculture? Cite concrete example to prove your argument.

A Sneak Peak Into The World Of Manufacturing Industries

Production of goods in a massive quantity after processing the raw materials is also known as manufacturing. The workers are employed in steel factories, cars, breweries, textile companies, bakeries etc. In this chapter, the manufacturing industries will teach you all about the manufacturing industries, going into the secondary sector.

Importance of Manufacturing: Employment, Agriculture and Economy

  1. Employment: It also helps in the removal of unemployment and growth.
  2. Agriculture: Manufacturing industries will help modernize agriculture as it gives jobs in secondary and tertiary areas.
  3. Economy: Export of process goods will expand trade and commerce, bringing in much needed foreign exchange which will help in growing the country by giving a boost to the economy. The growth rate in manufacturing, which is over the previous years, has been around seven per cent per annum.

Industrial Locations: Favourable Conditions Required for Setting up an Industry

The availability of, here does industrial locations are the following:

1. Raw Material

  • The availability of the raw material in the concerned area makes it easy for setting up an industry at that location. For example, the availability of iron abundantly in Orissa is the reason why iron industries are located there.

2. Labour

  • Any successful industry requires a hard working labor, and often industries are found in underdeveloped areas where cheap labor can be hired.

3. Capital

  • Capital tends to be the most important requirement for setting up an industry, for buying land, machinery and hiring laborers.

4. Market

  • Any industry, which is set up, needs to make sure that the area where it has been built has a market, customers for the goods that it is manufacturing. Otherwise, it would go into a complete loss.

5. Government Policies

  • The Government Policies and Laws should be favourable with the industry that is about to be set up. Anything that clashes with law or the policies, will not really go well with the setting up of an industry in that area.

Manufacturing activity tends to be situated at the correct places where all the advantages of the industrial locations are available or can be arranged at a significantly less price.

Types of Industries

Agro Based Industries

  • Cotton, Jute, Silk, woollen textiles, sugar and edible oil, etc. companies are more into agricultural raw materials. Let’s understand more in detail about them by learning about their different kinds.

Textile Industry

  • This company has an only close connection with agriculture hence they give a living to the farmers, cotton boll pluckers, and workers who are busy in ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing, packaging, tailoring and sewing. It will help so many other companies, including chemicals and dyes, packaging, materials, and engineering works.

Jute Industry

  • India is one of the most massive raw jute and jute goods producers. Many of the mills are situated at West Bengal opposite the banks of Hugli River.

Sugar Industry

  • India is in the second position as it was a world producer of sugar, but it does get busy in the first place in Gur and Khandsari. This company goes according to the seasons of nature.

 Mineral Based Industries

  • Company will use minerals and metals, which is raw materials known as the mineral-based company. Now let us see a few companies that will go under this category:

Iron and Steel Industries

  • The leading essential company is iron and steel in all companies- they are heavy, medium and light, that will have more dependence on the machinery. It is also known as a heavy industry; the reason is that many raw materials and finished goods are cumbersome and bulky, which is more into the heavy transportation price.
  • Despite having large iron mines, India still lacks in coming up with the best potential in iron industries because of the following reasons:
    1. Expensive and less availability of coking coal.
    2. Less productivity of labour.
    3. There is not much energy.
    4. Feeble foundation.

Aluminium Smelting

  • Aluminium Smelting is one of the essential metallurgical companies in India. It is to make aircraft, utensils and wires. One of the raw materials in Bauxite is Smelters.
  • Aluminum Smelting is a favorite item for steel, copper, zinc, and it has a considerable number of companies. Here are the following items:
    1. It is very light.
    2. It can dissolve.
    3. It has a perfect heat ventilator.
    4. Malleable.
    5. It is powerful when it is combined with some other metals.

Chemical Industries

  • The chemical company has both vast and small scale manufacturing units. Very fast Growing has been kept in record for two inorganic and organic areas.
  • Inorganic Chemicals include sulphuric acid, nitric acid, alkalies, soda ash and caustic soda.
  • Organic Chemicals: That has petrochemicals that are also used for producing materials such as sensitive fibres, sensitive rubber, plastics, dye-stuffs, drugs and medicines.

Fertilizer Industry

  • These fertilizer companies are in the middle which is somewhere in the manufacturing of the nitrogenous fertilizers (one of the most critical areas), phosphate fertilizers and ammonium phosphate (DAP) and Complex fertilizers mixed with nitrogen, Phosphate, and Potash. The most who contributed half of the manufacturing fertilizers are Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Kerala.

Cement Industry

  • One of the most important in cement for building tasks includes building houses, factories, bridges, roads, airports, dams, and many more building office reasons. This company will need bulky and much more significant raw products such as limestone, silica and gypsum.

Automobile Industry

  • This company has many productions of trucks, buses, cars, motorcycles, scooters, rickshaws, and different types of vehicles. Here are some of the companies situated in Delhi, Guru Gram, Mumbai, Pane, Chennai, Kolkata, Luck now, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur and Bangalore.

Information Technology and Electronics Industry

  • The electronics company has a wide variety of items from transistors of television, telephones, mobiles, telecom, telephone exchange, radars, computers, and a lot of other equipment from the telecommunication companies. The companies have gained people in India. One of India’s best places in Bangalore is famous for electronics.

Impact of Industrialisation on the Environment: Degrading Environment and Pollution

With the best comes the effects of the worst. Industrialization may have a great role in boosting a country’s economy, but it also plays a major role in degrading the natural environment, through pollution. Let’s learn more about this.

Pollution and its Types

Pollution introduces toxic and harmful material in the environment, which leads to its degradation, often leading to loss of health of the living beings on earth.

Types Of Pollution

1. Air pollution

  • It is a very high part of not the most loved gases, which includes: Sulphur Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide. The smoke is removed by the chemicals and paper industry, brick kilns, refineries and smelting plants, and the burning of the fossil fuels that can cause air pollution. It does of course harm human beings health, animals, plants and building and the surrounding as a full.

2. Water Pollution

  • It is one of the problems of natural and non-natural company rubbish and a lot of waste discharged by rivers. The companies that have an essential responsibility for water pollution for paper, pulp, chemical, textile and dyeing petroleum items, tanneries and electroplating companies.

3. Thermal Pollution

  • This is water that causes when the water is hot from industries and thermal plants fatigued into the rivers and ponds much before it cools down.

4. Noise Pollution

  • It is caused by the noise of a lot of dangerous signs on tasks of humans or the animal lives. The answers in irritating, anger will give us a problem in hearing, more heartbeats and blood pressure.

Controlling Environmental Degradation

  • Reducing the water use by using it again.
  • Getting more rainwater to meet with the water needs.
  • Creating hot water and condensing it much before getting them out in the rivers and ponds.
  • In such problems, the air can be lessened by more smokestacks to factories which are from the electrostatic precipitators, fabric, filters, scrubbers and inertial individuals.
  • Smoke can get less by using oil or gas rather than coal in the industry.
  • The machine should be redesigned to get more energy and less noise.

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