NCERT Notes Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 7 Lifelines of National Economy

NCERT Notes Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 7 Lifelines of National Economy

Chapter 7 Lifelines of National Economy NCERT Notes

Chapter Name

Lifelines of National Economy Notes


CBSE Class 10

Textbook Name

Contemporary India Class 10

Related Readings

  • Notes for Class 10
  • Notes for Class 10 Geography
  • NCERT Solutions for Lifelines of National Economy  


  1. What is the transport?
  2. Define roadways?
  3. What are the six types of classes of roadways and explain in details?

The space of growing in a country will depend on the manufacturing of items and services that will have time according to their area.

In today’s times, the world has changed in a very massive way, such as the town that will help better and quicker by getting the transport to move.

In India today it is connected with the full world. Lifelines of National Economy, you will learn how these times of modern transportation and communication will give lifelines to our nations and the current economy.


Moving the goods and services are three most important stuff on our earth, such as land, water and air. These are all upon the transport divided into land, water, and air transport. Now let us go further and more in details about transportation:


India today has a vast road network around the world, which is around 54.7 lakh km.

It is growing that is very important because of the road transport above rail transport which will be down below:

  • The making of the road is significantly less than the railway lines.
  • Streets have more geographically and much harder location that can’t be finished by the railways.
  • Routes can be negotiable with slopes, and they can easily have built-in mountains that include the Himalayas.
  • It is very economical.
  • It gives door-to-door service.
  • The transport on the road connects the railway stations, air and seaports.

In India, roads are divided into six classes which are according to their ways:

1. Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways

Golden Quadrilateral is a connection of highways in India’s top four metropolitan towns: Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, and Mumbai. The roads projects have been set by India’s national highway people (NHAI).

2. National Highways

National highways are a connection of trunk roads that have been put out and has maintained by the central Public works department (CPWD). It is one of the most historical Sher-Shah Suri Marg that is known by National highway No.1, between Delhi and Amritsar.

3. State Highway

Roads that are connected are a town capital with different districts of the main office called State Highways. The streets have been made and well kept by the state public works department (PWD).

4. District Roads

The main office interconnects the roads with other places in the area. The Zila Parishad well keeps the streets.

5. Other Roads

Agricultural roads have been connected to the rural places and villages with the towns divided under this category. The streets have got a special message by the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana.

6. Border Roads

Border roads build are built and well-maintained roads centred in the country’s areas. The industry built during 1960 for the growth of streets of some rules essential in the northern and north-eastern border parts.

Roads are also divided into the types of material that are used for the building, which are:

Metalled Roads

  • This is made out of cement, challenging or even bitumen of coal. These types of roads are all-weather roads.

Unmetalled Roads:

  • It goes out of use during the monsoon times. 


Railways are the main transportation for carrying a massive load and bulky goods for a long and short distance in India. The Railways is more critical in India’s economy. Therefore, rail transport will go through a problem as well, that is below:

  • The river building should be next to the river huge beds for lying down in the railway lines.
  • At the peninsula area’s hilly areas, the railway tracks have been laid by low hills, gaps or underway.
  • Himalayan regions are also not the favorite for building a railway line due to the highest points from the surface, sparse population and lack of business opportunities.
  • This is very difficult to lay the railway lines in a sandy area.


The pipelines network is mainly used by the undergrounds to transport and pass on the fluids. It is used for transportation such as water, oil, gas products and pure gas, fertilizer industry and huge thermal power plants. Solids can also be transferred in a pipeline when moved into a pipe.

Here are three types of pipeline transportation in the country:

  • Oil field in upper Assam to Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh)
  • Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab.
  • Hazira in Gujarat to Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh.


Waterways are one of the fewer modes of transportation. They are one of the easiest ways for lifting heavy and bulky items. Gas-full and friendly-surrounding are ways of transport.

Here are some National waterways in India:

  • Ganga River is between Allahabad and Haldia (1620km).
  • Brahmaputra river is in between Sadiya and Dhubri (891 km)
  • West-Coastal river in Kerala, which is 250 Km.
  • A distance between the Godavari and Krishna rivers by the side of Kakinada Pondicherry stretch of the river.
  • A specific gap between the rivers Brahmani is right in the centre of Matai River, Delta channels of Mahanadi and Brahmani rivers, and East Coast Canel.

Major Sea Ports

India market has gone forward from the ports.

Here is a list of ports which is in India:

  • The first port to grow after independence is Kandla which was in Kanchchh. These are called as the Deendayal Port.
  • One of the hugest port with a substantially pure and a right place port is Mumbai.
  • One of the latest iron ore is going to India’s port in the part of Marmagao port Goa.
  • This port sees to send iron ore, Mangalore port, situated in Karnataka.
  • One of the enormous south-west port, situated right that the beginning at the front of the river is at Kochchi.
  • Tuticorin port is located at the centre of the south-east.
  • The oldest artificial port in India is in Chennai.
  • One of the high landlocked and safety port is Visakhapatnam.
  • A port situated in Odisha has sent iron on in a place called Paradip.
  • The coastal river port is in Kolkata.
  • One of the secondary growth port, to take out the stress of pressure on the Kolkata port is called Haldia port.


One of the quickest is airways, and it is very comfortable and an easy way of transportation. Travelling by air is easy to reach a region such as a very high hilly mountain, dry dessert, a quiet forest and vast oceans. Airways started in 1953. Air India gives domestic and international provides a good service.

Therefore, travelling by air is not slow it is very famous to many people.


There are many types of communication: television, radio, press, films, etc.

One of the Indian postal networks is the hugest around the world. It gives gifts that are personally written.

  • By sending a first-class mail can be between land and air.
  • The second class mail has packets of books, stamped newspaper and periodicals. They have been lifted by the mail, and a fully closed land and water transport.

The hugest telecom networks in India are in Asia. The subscriber trunk dialling is across India that it made very easy by growing the technology with having communication.

  • The media has perfect entertainment and develops awareness in which the people can learn about different types of programmes and news. Such as radio, television, newspaper, magazines, books and movies
  • The radio channel is India has different sorts of local, old and national languages.
  • One of the best networks around the world is Doordarshan.
  • The newspaper in India has a massive number with a hundred languages worldwide.

International Trade

Switching of items around the people, across the regions and countries is called trade. Trading between two countries is known as international trade. It is known as the Stock market for the country. Import and export are the two main types of businesses. By balancing the work of the country, it is much more different than the export and import.

  • India export limits the number of imports. This is known as the favourable balance of trade.
  • If the total goes higher than the sum of imports, then it is called the not so favourable balance of trade.

The item is sent from India to different gems and jewellery, chemicals and other sorts of stuff, which are agriculture and many lined things, etc.

The items back to India have gas crude and items, gems and jewellery, chemicals and all other stuff, which are like electronic items, machinery, agriculture and lined items.

Tourism as a Trade

Many people around 15 million are busy with tourism culture. Tourism India follows:

  • It will market the national horizontal.
  • It will help the local’slocal’s crafts and cultural values.
  • It provides to grow for the international understanding that what Indian culture is all about. Many international foreigners come to India for cultural ways.

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