ICSE Revision Notes for Gas Laws Class 9 Chemistry
Chapter Name  Gas Laws 
Topics Covered 

Related Study 
Gas
Gas is the state of matter in which interparticle space is large and interparticle attraction is weak. Because of this, the particles become completely free to move randomly in the entire available space.
Kinetic molecular theory of gases
The kinetic molecular theory of a gas states that a gas is composed of molecules/particles which are in constant random motion. This theory helps in explaining the simple relationship of the pressure, volume and temperature of a gas.
Properties of gases
 Do not have definite shape or volume
 Are compressible
 Can be expanded
 Exert pressure in all the directions
 Have low densities
 Diffuse readily
 Can be liquefied
Gas Law
The behaviour of a gas under known conditions of temperature, pressure and volume is described by laws known as gas laws.
The standard variables used during gas laws are pressure (P), temperature (T) and volume (V).
Units of temperature 
Units of volume 
Units of pressure 
Celsius (°C) Kelvin (K) Normal temperature : 273 K = 0°C Relationship between Celsius and Kelvin: K = °C + 273 
1 litre = 1 dm^{3} = 1000 cm^{3} 1dm^{3} = 1000 cm^{3} = 1000 ml 1 cm^{3} = 1 ml Mililitre (ml) Litre (l) Cubic centimetre (cm^{3}) Decimetre cube (dm^{3}) Relationship: 1 litre = 1000 ml = 1000 cm^{3} 1 ml = 1 cm^{3} 
Atmosphere Torricelli (torr) cm of mercury (Hg) mm of mercury (Hg) Relationship : 76 cm of Hg = 760 mm of Hg 1 mm of Hg = 1 torr 
Pressure–Volume Relationship in Gases
At constant temperature, the volume of a fixed mass of a gas decreases when the pressure increases, and it increases when the pressure decreases.
Temperature–Volume Relationship in Gases
When the pressure is kept constant, the volume of a fixed mass of a gas increases with increase in temperature, measured in Kelvin or Absolute scale, and it decreases with decrease in temperature.
P_{1}V_{1} = P_{2}V_{2} = K (T = Constant)
Boyle’s Law
At constant temperature, the volume of a given mass of a dry gas is inversely proportional to its pressure.
Graphical verification of Boyle’s Law
1. V vs 1/P: When variation in volume (V) is plotted against (1/P) at a constant temperature, a straight line passing through the origin is obtained.
Charles's Law
At constant pressure, the volume of a given mass of a dry gas increases or decreases by 1/273 of its original volume at 0°C for each degree centigrade rise or fall in temperature.
∴ V_{1}/T_{1} = V_{2}/T_{2} = Constant
Graphical Representation of Charles’s Law
T vs V: The relationship between the volume and the temperature of a gas can be plotted on a graph. A straight line is obtained.
Absolute Zero
The temperature −273°C is called absolute zero.
V = V_{0} (273 + t)/273
Volume at  273°C = V_{0} (273 – 273)/273 = 0
Absolute or Kelvin scale of temperature
The temperature scale with its zero at −273°C and each degree equal to one degree on the Celsius scale is called Kelvin or the absolute scale of temperature.
Conversion of temperature from Celsius scale to Kelvin scale and vice versa
The value on the Celsius scale can be converted into Kelvin scale by adding 273 to it.
Example: 20°C = 20 + 273 = 293 K
Gas Equation
The gas equation is an equation used in chemical equations for calculating the changes in volume of gases when pressure and temperature both undergo a change, thereby giving a simultaneous effect of changes of temperature and pressure on the volume of a given mass of a dry gas.
PT = Constant
 Ideal gas: It is an imaginary gas which follows all the gas laws and has 0 volume at 0 K.
Standard or Normal Temperature and Pressure (STP/NTP)
 Volumes of gases change with temperature and pressure. Thus, a standard value of temperature and pressure is chosen to which gas volumes are referred.
 Volumes of gases are converted to Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP) conditions and then compared easily.
 The standard values chosen are 0°C or 273 K for temperature and 1 atmospheric unit (atm) or 760 mm of mercury for pressure.
Standard temperature = 0°C = 273 K
Standard pressure = 760 mm Hg
= 76 cm of Hg
= 1 atmospheric pressure (atm)