NCERT Notes Class 10 Social Science Civics Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements

NCERT Notes Class 10 Social Science Political Science Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements

Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements NCERT Notes

Chapter Name

Popular Struggles and Movements Notes


CBSE Class 10

Textbook Name

Democratic Politics- II Class 10

Related Readings

  • Notes for Class 10
  • Notes for Class 10 Political Science
  • NCERT Solutions for Popular Struggles and Movements 

In this chapter, we will carry on the highlights of democratic conflicts of people’s interests and viewpoints. The selected people who are in legislative power make Coordination between such conflicting interests and viewpoints. This involves both the demands and pressure for its fulfillment.

The major highlights would demonstrate how struggles around conflicting demands and pressures give shape to the democratic environment. This would also highlight some of the indirect ways to influence politics with pressure groups and movements.

Popular Struggles in Nepal and Bolivia

Movement for Democracy in Nepal

  • The movement of April 2006 had an extraordinary remark on the political history of Nepal.
  • This movement aimed to regain the powers of government from the hands of king Gyanendra.
  • The major parties formed a Seven Party Alliance (SPA) and went for a four-day strike in Kathmandu (Nepal’s Capital).
  • Maoists insurgents and other local organizations joined hands with them to demand and protest to restore democracy.
  • Their 3 demands were the restoration of parliament, the power to an all-party government, and a new Constituent Assembly.
  • On 24th April 2006, the king accepted these 3 demands. SPA Chose Girija Prasad Koirala as New Prime Minister. Eventually, in 2008, Monarchy was abolished, and Nepal became a federal democratic republic state.
  • In 2005, Nepalis adopted a new constitution.

Bolivia’s Water War

  • Bolivia is a country in Latin America with poor economic growth. It’s all about the struggle of people for the privatization of water in Bolivia.
  • The reason behind the protest: At the instructions of the world bank, the Bolivian government sold the rights of municipal water supply to the MNC in Cochabamba City. They increased water prices by 4 times.
  • In January 2000, labor alliance leaders, human rights, and local communities organized a four-day general strike. As a result, the government agreed to have a negotiation, but nothing was eventually derived. In February, they again started protesting amidst the brutal repression of the police and martial law’s improvement. Finally, the water supply contract with MNC was revoked, and the water supply old rates were restored. This is all about bolivia’s Water war.

Democracy and Popular Struggles

  • The movement of Nepal was to Establish democracy.
  • The war of Bolivia was to restore the right to claim the decisions of elected representatives of the government.

The story of Nepal and Bolivia struggle have some common aspects which are relevant to the analysis of democratic politics with retrospective and prospective effect :

  • The political conflict led to popular Struggles.
  • In both stories, the struggle involved mass mobilization.
  • Public demonstration of mass support clinched (won) the dispute.

Conclusions from the story

  • Evolution of Democracy through the popular Struggles between the people in power and those willing to have shared in the power. This is a time of expansion or deepening the roots of democracy in the nation.
  • Mass mobilization is the solution to democratic conflicts. When a large no. If people assert or protest against something, there are more chances for its enforcement.
  • These conflicts and mobilization are led through the organized political groups, pressure, and movement groups.

Mobilization and Organizations

Interest Groups and Pressure Groups

  • Generally,it’s a small association of people to protect their members’ interests and viewpoints.

Major Ways to participate in any big struggles

  • By forming political parties
  • By forming pressure groups and interest groups.
  • By direct individual participation, etc.

Pressure Groups and Movements

  • Pressure Groups are associations of people of the same interest, occupation, aspirations, viewpoints, opinions, etc., and come together to achieve predetermined objectives. But, unlike political parties, pressure groups do not want to control or share political power.

Examples of Some popular Movements

  • Narmada Bachao Andolan,
  • Movement for Right to Information,
  • Anti-liquor Movement,
  • Women’s Movement,
  • Environmental Movement.

Difference between interest/pressure groups and Movements

  • The main difference between interest or pressure groups and movement is that movements have loose organizations of people with more informal and flexible decision making. They are more dependent on spontaneous mass participation as compared to the interest groups.

Sectional Interest Groups

  • These are the groups that represent the interests of some sections of the society. For example, (workers, employees, business people, industrialists, a particular religion, caste, etc.). They work for the well being of their members, not society in general. Under the Bolivian Case, FEDECOR(Feracion Departamental Cochabambina de Regantes) is an apt example of sectional Interest Groups. It’s an association of farmers.

Public Interest Groups

  • These are also known as promotional groups. Their main aim is to help groups rather than their members only. For example, BAMCEF (Backward and Minority
  • Communities Employees Federation) is an organization of government employees that fights against caste discrimination. Their main aim is social justice and equality.

 Movement Groups

  • An association of people whose main aim is to attain the solution to a particular issue. This may be short term and long term as well. These are issue-specific.

Issue-specific movements

  • Movement whose main aim is getting the solution to the particular issue with a particular time frame.
  • For example, the Nepalese movement was issue-specific, whose main aim was to get back the powers from the king’s hands and restorative of democracy.
  • Narmada Bachao Aandolan was a good example of that kind, where the main goal was to stop the formation of the Sardar Sarovar dam on the Narmada river.
  • Environmental Movements also fall in this category.

 National Alliance for Peoples’ Movements (NAPM)

  • It’s an organization of various organizations struggling on various issues. This organization Coordinates the activities of people of such organizations.

How do Pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics in a variety of ways:

  • Gaining public support and sympathy towards their goals through the Organization of campaigns, meetings, and filing petitions. Also, take the support of the media.
  • Use of Protest activities like strikes, create disruptions in government working, to pressurize the government to get their demands noted.
  • Interest Groups and political parties do not engage Directly in politics. They take a stand against particular issues with political ideology.
  • The relationship between political parties and pressure groups can have different direct and indirect forms.
  • In most cases, pressure Groups are headed by the leaders of political parties and act as a supplementary arm of political parties—for example, trade union and student union.
  • Sometimes political parties grow after successful movements. For example, In Assam, the formation of Asom Gana Parishad resulted from the successful end of students’ movement against foreigners.
  • The relationship between political parties and interest groups or movement Groups is indirect. But generally, they take positions that are opposed to each other. Political parties finally solve movement Groups highlight issues and. Most of the leaders of political parties come from movement Groups.

Is their Influence healthy?

No doubt, pressure Groups, and movement Groups have deepened the roots of democracy. Still, it’s healthier activity to put pressure on the elected representatives to get the people’s answers. These groups play a very dominant and vital role in maintaining the balance.

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