NCERT Notes Class 10 Social Science Economics Chapter 1 Development

NCERT Notes Class 10 Social Science Economics Chapter 1 Development

Chapter 1 Development Notes Questions and Answer

Chapter Name

Development Notes


CBSE Class 10

Textbook Name

Understanding Development Class 10

Related Readings

  • Notes for Class 10
  • Notes for Class 10 Economics
  • Revision Notes for Development 


Development is a far reaching term which incorporates the desire of individuals to improve their way of life, aggregate development of the nation by increment in genuine per capita pay, decrease in destitution, lack of education, crime percentage, and so forth. It is a complex task which involves thinking about these desires and about searching ways to achieve these goals.

Also, our present is influenced by our past hence it is through awareness of democratic political processes we can achieve our hopes and possibilities in real life.

Features of Development (What Development Promises)

Different People Different Goals

  1. Various individuals have alternate points of view on turn of events, they can have distinctive improvement objectives and what might be advancement for one may not be improvement for the other. It might even be damaging for the other.

For example:

  1. The development goals of a landless rural labourer would be more days of work and better wages as well as quality education for their children while for a girl from a rich family would desire gender equality and women empowerment. Thus, people’s situation determines their desires and developmental goals.
  2. Development of a dam might be an improvement for an industrialist as he will get greater power, yet development of a dam lowers the land and disturbs the lives of individuals who are uprooted like clans.

Income and Other Goals

Primarily people want more income but besides that people also seek things like equal treatment, freedom, security, and respect of others. In some cases, these may be more important than more income because material goods are not everything our quality of life depends on other non-material things too.

Hence, for development people look at mix of goals. For example: A earning women would need safe and secure environment to take variety of jobs or run a business.

National Development

Like Individuals seek different goals similarly they have different notions for National development. National Development is complex and involves improvement in living standard of the people, increase in per capita income, availability of social amenities like education, medical care, social services, etc. to the citizens of the country.

  1. Under national development, a country uses its resources in a fair and just way.
  2. Under this only those programmes and policies are implemented which would benefit many people.
  3. Under national development, countries focus more on social infrastructure which includes education, health, and other social services.

Comparison of Different Countries or State in terms of Development

Income is considered as one of the important attributes for comparison of Countries. Income of the country is the income of all the residents of the country i.e. The Total income of the country. Since countries have different population, comparing total income will not tell us what an average person is likely to earn, so it is not a useful measure for comparison. Hence, Average income which is total income of country divided by its total population is used for comparison. The Average income is also called per capita income.

World Bank uses per Capita Income as a criterion for classifying countries:

  • Countries with per capita income of US$ 12,056 per annum and above in 2017 are called rich countries and
  • Countries with per capita income of US$ 955 or less are called low-income countries.

All the countries excluding countries of Middle East and certain other small countries have been termed as developed countries. India comes in the category of low middle income countries with its per capita income US$ 1820 per annum in 2017.

  • Average Income: When the total national income is divided by the total population, it is called the per capita income. Per Capita Income = National Income / Population
  • average income is useful for comparison it does not tell us how this income is distributed among people.

Income and other Criteria

Apart from income people also seek other important things like Better education, Pollution free environment, Health care services, equal treatment, freedom etc. All these aspects are also taken into consideration for comparing the development of countries.

For example:

By comparing the per capita income of States Haryana, Bihar and Kerala we find that Haryana has the highest income but looking at other criteria like Infant mortality rate, Literacy rate, attendance ratio, etc we find Kerala has more literacy rate as well as low mortality rate and more attendance ratio because it has adequate provision for basic health and educational services while Haryana ranks last in these criteria. Thus, Development means overall growth and progress not just limited to income.


  • Infant Mortality Rate (or IMR) indicates the number of children that die before the age of one year as a proportion of 1000 live children born in that particular year. Lower the amount of Infant Mortality Rate, higher is the rate of people being healthy.
  • Literacy Rate measures the proportion of literate population in the 7-and-above age group. The more the people are educated, the more developed the group is.
  • Net Attendance Ratio is the total number of children of age group 14 and 15 years attending school as a percentage of total number of children in the same age group.

Public Facilities

Public facilities play very important role in the development of a country as these include education, health, transportation, banking which are the base for any kind of development.

Most of the poor survive because of public facilities. There are many services which become affordable only if they are part of public facility.

(i) Education

  • Education is the most important public facility which is required both by the rich as well as the poor.

(ii) Public Distribution System (PDS)

  • Public distribution system is another important facility which plays an important role in providing food security to the people.

(iii) Transportation

  • Many transport facilities like railway, airways, waterways, banking become affordable only if they are provided collectively.

Human Development Report

Human Development Report is a composite index published by United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) that compares countries based onthe educational levels of the people, their health status and per capita income.

Countries are compared based on HDI (Human Development Index). HDI is calculated based on Per capita income, Life expectancy, BMI etc. Srilanka with HDI of 76 is ahead of India with HDI 130 because of its more literacy rate and income.

  • BMI (Body Mass Index): One way to find out if adults are undernourished is to calculate Body Mass Index. Divide the weight of a person (in kg) by the square of the height (in metres). If this figure is less than 18.5 then the person would be considered undernourished. If this BMI is more than 25, then a person is overweight.
  • Life Expectancy: Average expected length of life of a person at the time of birth.

Sustainability of Development

Sustainability of Development means development without hampering the Environment. It is the process of development that satisfies the present needs without compromising the needs of the future generation.

Consequences of environmental degradation do not respect nationalor state boundaries, this issue is no longer region or nation specific. Our future is linked together. Overuse of resources will exhaust them. If development is not sustainable, it will give rise to environmental degradation and become a global problem.

For example:

Groundwater is a natural resource which is replenished by nature. People of a particular generation must use water in such a way that people of future generation may also be able to use groundwater. People should not overuse and degrade the quality of water so that water is exhausted or if it remains, it is contaminated to such an extent that it becomes unusable for people of future generations.

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