NCERT Notes Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture

NCERT Notes Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture

Chapter 4 Agriculture NCERT Notes

Chapter Name

Agriculture Notes


CBSE Class 10

Textbook Name

Contemporary India Class 10

Related Readings

  • Notes for Class 10
  • Notes for Class 10 Geography
  • NCERT Solutions for Agriculture  
  1. How do you think Indian economy can be boosted with the help of agriculture?
  2. Define agriculture and the types of agriculture.
  3. Which is the oldest method of farming? Do you think it was one good way of farming? Share your ideas.
  4. What are conditions that make plantations successful?

An Introduction to Agriculture and its Types

Agriculture is a proper task that gives most of the food raw material for various companies. In this chapter, we will learn about the different types of Farming, cropping patterns, and huge crops grown in India. Finally, this chapter will understand how much of agriculture will be spread to the national economy, Employment, and advice.
The agriculture methods depend on the physical surroundings that have advantages and understand the technological and socio-cultural ways. Farming relies upon subsistence to industrial type. In various parts of India, the following farming methods are being practised.

Primitive Subsistence Farming: The Oldest Method

Also known as the slash and burn agriculture, it is said to be one of the oldest methods of farming.. Farmers chose a clean area that grows cereals and other food items. If the soil fertility goes less, the farmers burn and leave that area for sometime, so that it gains fertility again. A fresh patch of land for cultivation is chosen. It is also called Jhumming in the north-eastern cities. It is noted that land tasks are less in this type of agriculture and it mostly is carried out in the rainy season. It is practised in very few parts of India till date. Slash and burn agriculture is carried out just for families and tribes, it does not necessarily involve commercial activities.

Intensive Subsistence Farming: Maximum Profit and Small Lands

Intensive subsistence farming is carried out in small parcels of land, but with better labour and simple tools, to yield the maximum output. It is often done for the consumption of families, and the remaining yield is sold for commercial profit. It is often practised in areas with high populations. It is often tried that the maximum amount of profit is taken from the smallest piece of land available.

Commercial Farming: Modern Agriculture and Plantations

Modern day agriculture today, which is carried out for commercial purposes, as a means of livelihood by yielding maximum profit is known as commercial farming. This sort of farming uses modern tools, fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides and high yielding variety seeds for higher productivity.


Plantations are a part of commercial farming, where a single crop is grown over a large tract of land, mostly commercial crops, like tea or bananas.
  • The crops produced are often used as raw materials for market and industries, and so a well developed transport and communication is one condition that needs to be fulfilled for a better boosted market.
  • For Example, Tea, Coffee, Rubber, Sugar cane, Banana.

Cropping Pattern and Productive Agriculture

Agriculture is a very difficult form of activity which is carried out keeping in mind spatial arrangement of sowing and fallow on a given area and in a given season, since every crop grown depends upon the season. Here we will learn about the three cropping seasons in India.

1. Rabi

  • This is the first cropping season that you’ll learn about. The sowing season for Rabi starts in winter, that is, from October to December. The harvesting for these crops is done in summer, that is from April to June. The major rabi crops are peas, barely and gram.

2. Kharif

  • Kharif is the next cropping season in the list. It starts with the beginning of monsoon, that is, during the days of April to May. The Kharif crops are harvested in the days starting from September until October. The major Kharif crops are jowar, bajra and moong.
    Zaid: The last season in the list is Zaid, which is a short summer cropping season between Rabi and Kharif. The major crops grown in this season are cucumber and watermelon.

Major Crops in India

India, with its diverse geographical locations and climates, is gifted with growing different kinds of crops. Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy, and the culture of Indian society. You’d see different kinds of food, often made in different parts of India. Every festival in the South Indian states has rice, the Northern States would have wheat and so on. Let’s learn about the major crops grown in India.

Different types of food and non-food crops are growing in various parts of India, depending on the different soil types, weather, and cultivation practices. There are major types of crops that are growing in India:

  • Rice
  • Wheat
  • Millets
  • Pulses
  • Tea
  • Coffee
  • Sugarcane
  • Oilseeds
  • Cotton
  • Jute

Now, we will explain each one of them:


  • Rice is a kharif crop, which is grown in areas of high temperature and heat. A heavy rainfall of more than 100cm is required for the production of this crp\op. India is ranked as the second massive producer of rice after China. It is grown in the mountains in the north and north-eastern India, coastal areas, and the deltaic cities.


  • Wheat is a Rabi crop, which requires a winter season for a good growth. A warm sunshine is another condition required for its ripening. A rainfall of at least 50 to 75cm of heavy rainfalls, which is equally passed across the growing season is another condition to be fulfilled for its better growth. The Ganga-satluj Mountains, which is on the north-west and black soil area of the Deccan, are the two critical wheat-growing areas in India.This is one of the second most important cereal crops and the most important food crop in India’s northwestern part.


  • Millets are throughout the entire existence of Indian sub mainland for as far back as 5000 years and have become a vital piece of our eating regimen. These are from the grass family, otherwise called the Poaceae family, and are known to be high in nutrients. They are in this manner known as coarse grains. Jowar, Bajra, and Ragi are the most basic millets filling in India. It is supposed to be the third most fundamental food crop concerning the territory and creation. It develops well on exceptionally sandy soil and shallow dark soil.This is a downpour taken care of harvest that is filled generally in wet regions. It develops well on red, dark, sandy, loamy, and shallow dark soils.This is generally filled in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh. It is a significant creating region: Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Haryana. It is huge in delivering states: Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Jharkhand, and Arunachal Pradesh.


  • Maize is a kharif crop, which is grown in a temperature between 21 degrees to 27 degrees, and is known to grow well in old alluvial soil. These are used in food and fodder. There are massive maize- producing states, including Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, and Telangana.


  • India is one of the massive producers and consumers of pulses globally. Vibrations are one of the vast sources of protein in a vegetarian diet. Giant pulses are grown in India: Tur (Arhar), Urad, Moong, Masur, Peas, and Gram. The vibrations grown in circles with some other crops are that the soil will save fertility. Some vast pulses increase in Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, and Karnataka.

Food Crops and Other Grains in India


  • Sugarcane grows in summer, and humid weather with a temperature of 21 degrees to 27 degrees, with rainfall between 75cm to 100cm. It can be grown in various kinds of soil, and needs manual labour from sowing until harvesting. India stands to be the second massive producer of sugarcane after Brazil. Sugarcane is one of the vital substances of the sugar which are Gur (Jaggery), Khansari, and Molasses. An enormous amount of sugarcane is produced in Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Bihar, Punjab, and Haryana.

Oil Seeds

India is one of the massive producers of oil seeds in the world, with around different oil seeds covering 12% of India’s total cut area. The most important oil seeds grown in India are

  • Groundnut
  • Mustard: Sesamum (Til)
  • Castor Seeds
  • Linseed
  • Coconut
  • Soya bean
  • Cotton Seeds
  • Sunflower


Tea was introduced in India by the British, and it is one of the most important commercial crops in India. It grows well during the summer and mid-summer weather, in a deep and stable, well-drained soil which is rich in humus and organic matter.The tea bushes need warm and moist frost-free weather all year. It is a labour-intensive company. Huge tea is produced in Assam, hills of Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri areas, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala.


Just like tea, coffee too stands out to be one of the favourite drinks in India. The best part is, India accounts to about 3.2% of the world’s coffee production. Indian coffee is praised for its amazing quality. The Yemen Coffee, one which is famous also over the world, was first cultivated in Budan Hills, and indeed, even today its development is bound to the Nilgiri in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

Horticulture: The World of Domestic Commercial Gardening

Horticulture is defined as the field of agriculture which deals with the growing of fruits and vegetables. India is the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world with first rank in the production of Banana, Mango, Lime & Lemon, Papaya and Okra.(Drishti IAS). India produces about 13% of the world’s vegetables. Let’s learn about the most important ones in India.

  • Mangoes are grown in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal.
  • The oranges of Nagpur and Cherrapunjee (Meghalaya), Bananas of Kerala, Mizoram, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu are famous all over India.
  • Litchi and Guava are grown in abundance in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. ❏ Pineapples are grown in Meghalaya.
  • Grapes are popularly sown in Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, and Maharashtra.
  • Apples, Pears, Apricots, and Walnuts are grown in Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.

Non Food Crops: The Industrial Crops of India

Industrial crops are all in all commercial non food crops, grown for the use of purposes other than consuming. They are used as raw materials in the industry to produce goods needed by the consumer.


  • It is a tropical tree crop, which needs a lot of moist and warm weather with a lot of rainfall of more than 200cm. The temperature needs to be more than 25 degrees for its growth. It is grown for industrial uses, and is a demanded raw material. It is grown in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andaman, the Nicobar Islands, and the Garo Hills of Meghalaya.


  • This crop is grown mostly for the textile industry, with cotton, jute, hemp and pure silk being the four important fibre crops grown in India. Silk is very much famous all over India, as many of the traditional attires of the Indian women, specially Banarasi Silk, Assam Silk, Kanjeevaram are made out of silk, and is very much in demand all over the world, is make from the silkworms’ cocoons who feed on green leaves. Other fibre crops like jute, hemp and cotton are grown in soil.


  • It is a kharif crop which needs high temperature for its growth along with a little rain, frost free days and sunshine. It grows in black soil on the Deccan Plateau. Huge cotton-growing areas are Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh.


  • Jute is known as the Golden Fibre of India, and it grows appropriately on well-drained proper soils in the flood plains. High temperature is needed for growth. It is used to make gunny bags, mats, ropes, yarn, carpets, and other artefacts. The best jute mills are found in West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Odisha and Meghalaya.

Transformation of the Indian Agriculture: Introduction of Technological and Institutional Reforms

Though agriculture has been in practise in the Indian subcontinent since the time history could be written, it is important to note that it still remains very much primitively handled in many parts of India. Government has taken many initiatives and steps for the rise and advancement of agriculture in India. The most important step that the Indian government took was the abolition of zamindari, which literally ripped off the lands and earnings of the farmers back then. Let’s have a look at the initiatives taken by the government for the betterment of agriculture.

Green Revolution

  • The Green Revolution was a thrilling initiative launched by the Government in the late 1960s where the farmers in the Northern states like Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. Awareness regarding modern methods of agriculture to yield maximum results was spread. Tractors, high yielding variety seeds, chemicals like insecticides, pesticides, fertilizers and modern irrigation tools were provided to the farmers. However, it just profited partial areas of India.

Initiatives for the Farmers

  • The Kisan Credit Card (KCC), Personal Accident Insurance rules, and regulation were some of the schemes introduced by the government to save the farmers from unavoidable crisis.

Awareness Programs and weather Bulletins

  • The government launched and still launches several awareness programs regarding better farming. The government also announces minimum support price, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to check the exploitation of farmers by speculators and middlemen.

Indian Agriculture Contribution to Indian Economy

Agriculture stands to be the backbone of the Indian economy, but it is very heartbreaking to note the plight of the declining condition of agriculture in India. About 70% of the present Indian population relies on agriculture as their livelihood. The net contribution of agriculture to the GDP is 17%. Around 60% of the Indians are employed in this sector. The alarming condition states that people are slowly drifting away from this whole agriculture livelihood thing and are migrating to urban areas, and are doing all sorts of labour and manual work.

Food Security

Food security is defined as a state where healthy, nutritious and affordable food is available to all in the state. India is a country where despite agriculture and production of food being the main economy, it lacks to provide food to all in many areas, especially those which suffer a lot during natural disasters. However, there is a NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY SYSTEM designed to make food available and affordable to everyone in the country. It consists of two programs:

Buffer Stock

  • When we talk about buffer stock, we immediately understand that it is related to something that is collected in abundance. A buffer stock is the collection of food grains, like wheat and rice, procured from the Food Corporation of India (FCI) by the government. The stock is created in order to distribute food in drought prone or deficit areas, and make sure food is available to all.

Public Distribution System

  • Public Distribution System is a policy designed to make sure everyone belonging to rural and urban areas can afford food at subsidised prices. It is a part of the Indian Food Security System, which is managed and established by the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food, and Public Distribution. It makes sure that poor people or lower middle class people have access to cheap food and non food commodities.

Globalising Indian Agriculture

Before the arrival of British, India was a self-sufficient economy. It was ripped off its self reliance after the British arrived in India, by exporting all of its yields at minimum price abroad. Today, Indian agriculture needs a stronger technological boost. It needs awareness about what can be done in the smallest parcel of land to gain maximum profit.

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