NCERT Notes for Class 9 Social Science Political Science Chapter 4 Working of Institutions

NCERT Notes for Class 9 Social Science Political Science Chapter 4 Working of Institutions

Chapter 4 Working of Institutions NCERT Notes

Chapter Name

Working of Institutions Notes


CBSE Class 9

Textbook Name

Democratic Politics Class 9

Related Readings

How Policy Decisions are Made

  • In a democracy the representatives have to follow some rules and procedures because they have to work with and within institutions. 
  • Legislature, executive and judiciary play a key role in major decisions. President is the head of the state and is the highest formal authority in the country.
  • Prime Minister is the head of the government and actually exercises all governmental powers. He takes most of the decisions in the Cabinet meetings.

A Government Order

  • Government Order on August 13, 1990. It was called an Office Memorandum. 
  • This order announced a major policy decision. 
  • According to this, 27% of the vacancies in civil posts and services under the Government of India are reserved for the Socially and Educationally Backward Classes (SEBC).

The Mandal Commission

  • The Government of India had appointed the Second Backward Classes Commission in 1979. It was headed by Sh. B.P. Mandal.
  • It was asked to determine the criteria to identify the socially and educationally backward classes in India and recommend steps to be taken for their advancement.
  • One of the main recommedation of the commission was that 27 per cent of government jobs be reserved for the socially and educationally backward classes.

Responsibities of Mandal commission

  • To determine the criteria of socially and educationally backward classes. 
  • To identify the socially and educationally backward classes.
  • To recommend steps to be taken for the advancement of socially and educationally backward classes.


  • Several arrangements are made in modern democracies which are called Institutions. Democracy works well when these institutions perform functions assigned to them.

Need for Political Institutions

  • Institutions involve meetings, committees and routines. This often leads to delays and complications.
  • Some of the delays and complications introduced by institutions are very useful as they provide an opportunity for a wider set of people to be consulted.
  • Institutions make it difficult to have a good decision taken very quickly. But, they also make it equally difficult to rush through a bad decision.


  1. President 
  2. Lok Sabha (Lower House) 
  3. Rajya Sabha (Upper House)

1. The Parliament

  • In all democracies, an assembly of elected representatives exercises supreme political authority on behalf of the people. In India such a national assembly of elected representatives is called Parliament. At the state level this is called Legislature or Legislative Assembly. 
  • Parliament consists of the President and two Houses, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.

Need for a Parliament

  • Parliament is the final authority for making laws in any country.
  • Parliament controls those who run the government. The government can take decisions so long as they enjoy support of the Parliament.
  • Parliament controls all the money that government has.
  • Parliament is the highest forum of discussion and debate on public issues and national policies in any country.

2. Lok Sabha (House of the People)

  • Lok Sabha (House of the People) or Lower Chamber It is Usually directly elected by the people and exercises the real power on behalf of the people.
  • The total number of elected members of Lok Sabha is 545+02 members are nominated by the president of India from Anglo-Indian community.

3. Rajya Sabha (Council of States)

  • Rajya Sabha (Council of States) or Upper Chamber It is indirectly elected and performs special functions such as interest of various states, regions or federal units.
  • The total number of members of Rajya Sabha is 250+12 members are nominated by the President from literature, sciecne art, and social service.

Lok Sabha Versus Rajya Sabha: Comparison of Powers

  • Any ordinary law has to be passed by both the Houses. But if there is difference between the Houses, the final decision is taken in a joint session. Owing to the larger number, the view of the Lok Sabha is likely to prevail. 
  • Lok Sabha exercises more powers in money matters. The Rajya Sabha can suggest changes in such matters but the Lok Sabha has the final say in these matters. 
  • The Lok Sabha controls the Council of Ministers. The government has to quit if they lose the confidence of the Lok Sabha. The Rajya Sabha does not have this power.


  • At different level of the government, there are some functionaries who take day-to- day decisions. All those functionaries are collectively known as the executive. 
  • They called executive because they are in charge of the ‘execution’ of the policies of the government. Thus, when we talk about ‘the government’ we usually mean the executive.
  • Further, executive is classified in two categories 

(a) Political Executive

  • The Political Executive is elected by the people for specific periods (e.g.-5 years). Ministers fall in this category. 

(b) Permanent Executive

  • There are some people to assist the political executive in carrying out day-to-day administration. They are appointed for a long period of time. This is called Permanent Executive or Civil Services.

Prime Minister

  • The President appoints the Prime Minister and on the advice of the Prime Minister other ministers are appointed by the President. 
  • The ministers should be the member of Parliament. A person who is not the member of the Parliament can become the Minister but he has to get elected to one of the houses within six months.

The Council of Ministers

  • The Council of Minister is the official name for the body that includes all the ministers. It includes following three types of ministers: 

Cabinet Ministers

  • About 20 top-level ministers who are in charge of the major ministries. 

Ministers of State with independent charge

  • They are usually in-charge of small Ministries.

Ministers of State

  • They are attached to and required to assist Cabinet Ministers. 
  • The parliamentary democracy is often called the Cabinet form of government because most of the important decisions are taken in Cabinet meetings. 

Collective Responsibility

  • The ministers may have different views and opinions, but everyone has to own up to every decision of the Cabinet. While the Prime Minister is the head of the government, the President is the head of the State.

Prime Ministerial form of government

  • If Cabinet is the most powerful institution; within the Cabinet it is the Prime Minister who is the most powerful. The Prime Minister commands so much power in parliamentary democracy that parliamentary democracy is sometimes seen as Prime Ministerial form of government.

Election of the President

  • The President is not directly elected by the people. The elected Members of Parliament (MPs) and the elected Members of the Legislative Assemblies (MLAS) elect the president.

Powers and Functions of the President of India

  • All major appointments are made in the name of the President. 
  • All international treaties and agreements are made in the name of the President.
  • The President is the supreme commander of the defence forces of India.
  • All laws and major policy decisions of the government are issued in the name of the President.
  • A bill passed by the Parliament becomes a law only after the President gives assent to it.
  • The President appoints the Prime Minister and other ministers on advice of the Prime Minister.

Indian Judiciary

  • The Indian Judiciary consists of a Supreme Court for the entire nation, High Courts in the states, District Courts and the courts at the local level.

Integrated Judiciary

  • India has an integrated judiciary. It means the Supreme Court controls the judicial administration in the country. Its decisions are binding on all other courts of the country.

Judicial Review

  • The Supreme Court of India and the High Courts can determine the constitutional validity of any legislation or action of the executive in the country, whether at the Union level or at the state level, when it is challenged before them. This is known as the judicial review.

Public interest litigation (PIL) :- 

  • The courts can give judgments and directive to protect public interest. Anyone can approach the courts if public interest is hurt by the actions of government. This is called publicinterest litigation.

Independence of Judiciary

  • An independent and powerful judiciary is considered essential for democracies. Independence of judiciary means that it is not under the control of the legislature or the executive. Indian judiciary is considered independent owing to the following reasons: 
  • The judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts are appointed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister and in consultation with the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. In practice it means that the senior judges of the Supreme Court select the new judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts and there is very little scope for interference by the political executive.
  • A judge can be removed only by an impeachment motion passed separately by two-thirds members of the two Houses of the Parliament. 
  • The salary and allowances of the judges cannot be decreased except during emergency. 
  • The courts in India have the power of judicial review. They can declare invalid any law of the legislature or the actions of the executive, whether at the Union level or at the state level, if they find such a law or action is against the Constitution. 
  • The power and the independence of the Indian judiciary allow it to act as the guardian of the Fundamental Rights.
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