Revision Notes for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India

Revision Notes Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 4 Food Security

Chapter 4 Food Security in India NCERT Notes

Chapter Name

Food Security  Notes


CBSE Class 9

Textbook Name

Economics Class 9

Related Readings

Why Food Security?

  • The poorest section of the society remains food insecure all the times.
  • People above poverty line might also feel food insecure in times of natur calamity like earthquake, drought, flood, tsunami etc.

How calamities affect food security?

  • Due to natural calamities the production of crops decreases which led to food scarcity in that area.
  • Due to scarcity food price rises up,
  • at this point some disadvantaged section of society will be deprived of food,
  • if the calamity existed for long time it will eventually lead to starvation and famine.
  • it may ultimately lead to widespread death due to weakness or weak immune system.

Who are food-insecure?

  • People with little or no land, traditional artisans, providers of traditional services, petty self-employed workers and destitutes including beggars are the main sufferers of food and nutrition insecurity.
  • In urban areas people employed for low wages and in the casual labour market are major victims.
  • A large proportion of pregnant and nursing mothers and children under 5 years of age suffer from malnutrition and are thus, food insecure.
  • Economically backward states are more prone to natural disasters etc. are also affected.
  • Since independence, India has aimed to achieve ‘Self Sufficiency in Foodgrains’.
  • So the Green Revolution was the result of a strategy implemented after independence.

Dimensions of Food Security in India


  • Food production within the country.
  • Import
  • Stock stored in government granaries.
  • Food within the reach of every person.


  • Enough food is available for all person.
  • Persons have capacity to buy food of acceptable quality.
  • There is no barrier on access of food.

Food Insecure group in Urban Areas

  • Person employed in ill-paid occupations.
  • Casual labour

Food Insecurity in Social Composition

  • Schedule Castes
  • Schedule Tribes
  • OBCS
  • Migrants
  • Female
  • New born babies

Food Insecure groups in Rural Areas

  • Traditional artisans (Weavers, potters etc.)
  • Petty Self employed.
  • Providers of Services (Barbers, Washer men)
  • Destitude
  • Small and landless farmers


  • Hunger is an aspect of not just indicating food insecurity and poverty but also brings poverty.
  • The attainment of food security involves eliminating current hunger and reducing the risk of future hunger.

Hunger has chronic and seasonal dimensions

  • Poor people suffer from chronic hunger due to very low income and are food insecure all the times.
  • In rural areas Seasonal hunger is caused by the seasonal nature of agricultural activities.
  • In urban areas, seasonal hunger occurs because of the casual type of work like construction worker won’t get work during rainy season.

Need for self-sufficiency in food grains

  • To feed rising population.
  • To fight against droughts, floods, cyclone, etc.
  • To reduce import of food grains.
  • To control prices of food grains.

Steps Taken by Government of India for food Security

  • Buffer Stock
  • Minimum Support Price
  • Issue Price
  • Subsidy
  • Rationing
  • Public Distribution System
  • Fair price shops

Buffer Stock

  • Buffer Stock is the stock of food grains (wheat and rice) procured by the government through the Food Corporation of India (FCI).

Minimum Support Price’ (MSP)

  • The FCI purchases wheat and rice for the government from the farmers of surplus states at pre-announced prices. This price is called ‘Minimum Support Price’ (MSP).

Issue Price

  • The grains stored in Buffer Stocks are distributed in deficit areas and among the poor strata of society at a price lower than the market price known as Issue Price.


  • Subsidy is a payment that a government makes to a producer to supplement the market price of a commodity . It keeps consumer prices low while maintain a higher income for producers.


  • Rationing in India dates back to 1940’s against the backdrop of Bengal famine , but was revived in the wake of acute food shortage during 1960’s before Green Revolution.

The Role of Cooperative in Food Security

  • The cooperative societies set up shops to sell low priced goods to poor people.
  • In Delhi, Mother Dairy is making strides in providing of milk and vegetables to the consumers at controlled rate decided by Government of Delhi.
  • Amul is another success story of cooperative in milk and milk Products from Gujarat. It has brought the White Revolution in country.
  • In Maharashtra, Academy of Developmental Science (ADS) has facilitated a network of NGOS for setting up grain banks in different regions.
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