ICSE Solutions for Chapter 5 Natural Vegetation of India Class 10 Geography

Very Short Questions 

1. Which forest regions of India are also known as ‘Rain Forests’?


The Tropical Evergreen Forests.

2. Write the names of the typical trees of the Evergreen Forests.


Mahogany, Ebony, Rosewood, Cinchona, Coconut, Bamboo. 

3. How is it that the main regions of the Monsoon forests is the interior of the Southern Peninsula?


These regions lie in the rain shadow area of the Western Ghats. They get about 100-200 cm rain. 

4. What are Littoral forests or Tidal forests? Name the principal trees that grow in these forests.


Littoral forests or Tidal Forests are found in delta regions and along the marshy coasts. They are also called ‘Mangrove Forests’. The principal trees are Casuarina, Sundari, Mangrove.

5. Give two characteristics of tidal forests. 


Tidal forests are found to thrive in saline conditions. They possess breathing roots or pneumatophores. 

6. What are Sundarbans?


The forests found on the Ganga-Brahmaputra Delta covering the coasts of West Bengal and Bangladesh are called Sundarbans because of the abundance of Sundari trees. 

7. Describe the type of vegetation found in the Deccan Plateau and in the Thar Desert respectively.


Deciduous trees. Cactus, date-palms, acacia, khair, kikar.

8. Classify the following trees as Soft-wood and Hard-wood trees: Fir, Pine, Teak, Spruce, Rosewood, Sandalwood, Chir, Sal, Shisham and Silver Fir.


Soft-wood: Fir, Pine, Spruce, Chir, Silver Fir. 

Hard-wood: Teak, Rosewood, Sandalwood, Shisham, Sal. 

9. Give one important use of each of the following types of trees:

(i) Sundri

(ii) Sandalwood

(iii) Rosewood.


(i) Sundri trees are ideal for building boats.

(ii) Sandal wood is a fragrant wood which is used to make incense sticks, decorative articles and oil. The oil is added to cosmetic, bathing soaps etc. 

(iii) Rosewood is termite resistant and is used for making expensive furniture and carvings.

10. Name any three trees found in monsoon deciduous forests and state one use of each of these trees.


Sal-used for furniture making Railway sleepers. Sandalwood-used for extracting sandalwood oil and handicrafts perfumes. Mulberry-used for rearing silkworms.

Short Questions

1. With reference to the Natural Vegetation of India, classify the following trees under the heading: Kind of forests with which they are associated:

Chir Pine, Teak, Casuarina, Ebony, Rosewood, Khajuri, Eucalyptus, Sandalwood, Babul.


Tropical Evergreen: Ebony, Rosewood

Monsoon or Deciduous: Teak, Eucalyptus, Sandalwood

Desert: Khajuri, Babul

Littoral or Tidal: Casuarina

Mountain: Chir Pine

2. Why are Evergreen forests composed of thick vegetation and dense foliage?


Due to heavy rain, high temperatures and humidity, the soil retains moisture even after the rainy season. Places near the Equator get rain practically everyday. There is thick undergrowth of leaves and trees. The trees grow tall with thick foliage. 

3. Give one use of each of the following trees: mahogany, rosewood, ebony, cinchona, bamboo.


Mahogany: It is a hard wood used for furniture.

Rosewood: It is a fine grained, hard wood used for making expensive furniture. Ebony: It is a hard wood, coal black, with high density. It is therefore heavy, strong and used  for furniture.

Cinchona: From this Quinine is obtained which is used for treatment of malaria. Bamboo: It is used for house construction.

4. What is a Monsoon Forest? What are the chief characteristics of Monsoon forests?


Monsoon forest is the name given to the deciduous forest region. These regions have moderate rain, 100-200 cm. The characteristic of these trees is that they shed their leaves in the dry season to protect against excessive evaporation.

5. Describe the type of trees found growing in the monsoon forests of Western India. Which one of these trees is the most valuable? Why has the Government designated the areas where these trees are cultivated as ‘reserves’?


Deciduous trees. Teak is the most valuable. The trees of the monsoon forests are very valuable because they are hard, durable and useful in construction work and furniture. Hence the government has declared them as ‘reserves’ to prevent the cutting down of trees.

6. What are the characteristics of the Mangrove and give one use.


The mangrove tree has stilt like supporting roots which get exposed in low tide. The wood of this tree is hard, durable and is used for boat building and fuel.

7. Write two main characteristics of the Deciduous Monsoon Forests. 


Two characteristics of Deciduous Monsoon Forests are: 

  1. The trees in these forests shed their leaves from six to eight weeks during spring and early summer. 
  2. The trees in these forests occur in pure stand which makes it suitable for commercial exploitation. 

8. Mention two characteristics of Tropical rain forest.


Two main characteristics of Tropical Rain Forests are:

  1. Trees are dense and evergreen. 
  2. They are found in mixed stands. 

9. How do the trees of the desert adapt themselves to the arid conditions?


They have long tapering roots which go deep to tap water. The trees are stunted as there is not enough rain for tree growth. The thorny branches reduce loss of water by transpiration. The fleshy leaves prevent loss of water by evaporation. The wax on the leaves closes pores.

10. Name the various uses of the coconut tree.


The coconut is put to various uses The fruit is eaten. Oil is prepared from the seed. The oil cakes are used as manure and cattle feed. The fibres are used for making ropes. The leaves are used in thatched roofs. The bark of the tree is hard and is used in roofing, construction of houses.

11. Give the importance of the date-palm (Khajera)


Every part of the plant is useful. The leaves are used for making bags and mats. The fruit is eaten. The fibres are used for making ropes and the trunk supplies wood for furniture and tent pegs.

12. Name two important trees each of the Srinagar Valley in Kashmir and the Dandakaranya’ region in South India, indicating their commercial importance.


  • Srinagar Valley: Chennar and Silver Fir. They are soft-wooded trees. Chennar is known for its vastness like the Banyan in the Gangetic Plain. Silver Fir is soft-wooded and is used in packing cases.
  • Dandakaranya: Teak and Sal. These are hard-wooded trees known for their durability. Teak is used in construction work and furniture. Sal is used in railway sleepers. 

13. Describe briefly the value of forests to man.


  1. They influence the climate.
  2. Prevent floods.
  3. They provide the natural habitat for the animals.
  4. They provide the raw material for a number of industries, sports, paper, medicines.
  5. They are a source of employment to crores of our people.
  6. They help in agriculture.
  7. They prevent erosion by wind.

14. Give the names of four important products of forests. Why are forests grown in and around iron and steel cities?


Wood pulp, paper, medicines, paints and varnishes. 

Forests moderate the climate by absorbing much of the sun’s insolation and by supplying water vapour which further condenses to impart rain. This contributes towards cooling the hot environment of iron and steel cities. 

Long Questions 

1. Give one use of each: teak, sal, myrobalan, sisam, sandalwood, eucalyptus.


Teak: It is the most important of the deciduous trees. It is used for house construction, furniture, ship-building. It is hard and durable. It resists while ants and nails did not rust in it. 

Sal: It is hard-and heavy. It is immune to white ants. Hence it is used in railway sleepers.

Myrobalan: It grows abundantly in Tamil Nadu. It bears fruits which are dried and then used as tanning material in processing hides and skins. 

Sisam: It is an erect deciduous tree. It is mostly used in furnitures industry. Sandalwood: It is found in the Karnataka forests. It is used in making sandalwood oil and perfumes. Sandalwood oil of Mysore is famous. 

Eucalyptus: It is another important tree of the Karnataka forests. It is known for its lofty stature. Its wood is raw material for the paper industry. Eucalyptus oil is also available from it.

2. (i) Name the region where desert vegetation is found.

(ii) Give one characteristic of these trees.

(iii) Name the principal trees of this region.

(iv) Give one use of Babul (Acacia), Khair.


(i) Desert vegetation is found where rainfall is scanty about 10-50 cm. It is found in Ladakh region of Jammu-Kashmir, Saurashtra in Gujarat, Rajasthan, and some dry areas of the Deccan Plateau.

(ii) These trees are xerophytyic (drought resisting), thorny shrubs.

(iii) Cactus, Khair, Kikar, Khajera (date-palm), Babul (Acacia).

(iv) Babul yields a gum and the bark is used for tanning hides and skins. Khair is valuable for timber and products such as dye for tanning.

3. Mountain vegetation consists not of a single type but of several types. Give reasons.


On the slopes of the mountains-we find changing vegetation belts according to the altitude upto the snow line. On the lower slopes of the Eastern Himalayas we find broad-leaved evergreen trees the Laurel Oak, Magnolia. Above this we find deciduous trees and still higher we have the coniferous trees, Spruce, Silverfir, Pine, Chir Pine. On the Western Himalayas there are broad- leave evergreen trees but not so as those on the Eastern Himalayas. Chennar and Silverfir are the two most important trees of the Srinagar valley slopes. Still higher above 6000 metres there is only snow.

4. Explain the terms: Re-afforestation and Forest Conservation.


Re-afforestation: Growing trees in place of those which have been cut down. The policy of the government is that two trees should be planted for every tree cut down. Forest Conservation: preservation of forests. This is why the government has designated certain forests as ‘Reserved Forests’.

5. Mention three methods for the conservation and development of forests in India.


Three methods for the conservation and development of forests:

  1. Grow more trees or Vana Mahotasava.
  2. Forests regions are being declared “Reserved Sanctuaries” to preserve the ecosystem and protect animals.
  3. Afforestation and Reafforestation: Afforestation is the planting of more trees and Reafforestation is to plant trees in place of those which are cut down. The policy of the Government is to plant two trees in place of every one tree that is cut.

Give Reasons

Give Geographical Reasons for the following

1. Thar desert looks like a wasteland or Desert soil is almost dry.


There is very little rain. The desert soil is coarse-grained and hence the rate of evaporation is accelerated due to the broad pores in the soil.

2. Monsoon forests are commercially very important.


The monsoon forest trees are hard and durable. They are used for furniture and construction.

3. How do forests:

(i) have a favourable effect on the climate of the region?

(ii) act as a flood control measure?


(i) Forests transmit moisture into the air by means of transpiration and induce precipitation. Forests turn Carbon dioxide into oxygen and thus help to purify the air we breathe.

(ii) The roots of plants and trees hold the soil and thus forests check or prevent soil erosion, especially in hilly areas. Hence they also help in checking floods.

4. Write two reasons why monsoon deciduous forests are commercially more valuable than other types of forests.


  1. The trees in the monsoon deciduous forests provide useful wood and are economically very important.
  2. Trees like Teak and Sal are termite resistant woods.

5. Forests are called ‘handmaids of agriculture’.


Forests are useful in agriculture in various ways both directly and indirectly. Directly, they supply wood for making farm implements. Indirectly, they help in keeping the climate humid, creating favourable conditions for rain. They are helpful in checking floods and preventing soil erosion.

6. We find very little vegetation on the Indo-Gangetic Plain.


The Indo-Gangetic Plain is a fertile plain. Therefore, most of the plain has been cleared for farming. Secondly, the Gangetic Plain is a vast plain with different amounts of rainfall decreasing from east to west.

7. Coniferous trees are conical in shape.


They adopted to withstand large and heavy snowfalls and shed snow easily without breaking limbs or some of them also have very thick bark to protect them from fire.

8. Mention three reasons why forests must be conserved.


Forest conservation is needed to prevent soil erosion. Forest conservation helps to save the habitat of the wild animals. It also prevents desertification, flood control, control soil erosion etc.

9. Explain why Thorn and Scrub forests are found in the above mentioned region.


They are found in the above region because these areas get less than 25 cm. of rainfall and average temperature of 25 °C to 27°C.

10. Briefly explain two reasons for forests being ah important natural resource.


Forests are important natural resource because:

  1. They provide timber, medicinal plants etc.
  2. They help in purifying air and giving rain.

11. Mention two reasons why Tropical Evergreen Forests are difficult to exploit for commercial purposes.


Tropical evergreen forests do not occur in pure stands. The forests are dark and dense so difficult for commercial exploitation.

Data based Questions

1. From the following information about the regions A, B, C, state the kind of natural vegetation growing there and mention the name of a typical tree of the respective region:

A : Annual rainfall 100-200 cm. Trees shed their leaves in March and April.

B : Annual rainfall less than 50 cm. Trees are stunted and widely scattered.

C : Forests are found in submerged coastal plains, especially on the edges of deltas.


A : deciduous trees, teak.

B : desert vegetation, cactus.

C : littoral or tidal, sundari.

Name the Following

1. Name two important factors responsible for the various vegetation belts in India.


Climate and soils.

2. Name the chief types of natural vegetation found in India. Answer: Tropical Evergreen, Monsoon, Desert, Tidal or Littoral, Mountain. Question 3: Name the regions of the Tropical Evergreen forests.


These are found in regions of heavy rain over 200 cm. The chief regions are the Western Coastal Belt covering Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala coasts, North-East India covering Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Assam, Meghalaya, Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

3. Name the regions of the Monsoon Forests in India.


These regions get moderate rain, 100-200 cm. They cover the lower slopes of the Western Himalayas, the eastern slopes, of the Western Ghats comprising parts of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh.

4. Name two States in India noted for the Deodar tree. Give two uses of deodar wood.


Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. It is used for making paper and in railway sleepers.

5. Name one region for each of the following:

(i) Tropical Evergreen Forests

(ii) Deciduous Monsoon Forests

(iii) Desert Vegetation


(i) Western Ghats

(ii) Eastern slopes of the Western Ghats, Maharashtra and Karnataka

(iii) Rajasthan.

6. Name one important commercial tree growing in the deciduous forests of Madhya Pradesh.


Teak, Sal.

7. Name the important trees of Rajasthan.


Babul,  Khajuri, Date-Palm.

8. Name the natural vegetation largely found in the following regions: (i) The delta of the Ganga river.

(ii) The windward side of the Western Ghats.

(iii) The Deccan Plateau.


(i) Mangrove or littoral forests.

(ii) Tropical evergreen forests.

(iii) Tropical dediduous.

9. Name the tree, the timber of which could be used for the following:

(i) A soft and white timber used for making toys and match boxes.

(ii) A hard durable timber used for ship building and furniture making.

(iii) A sweet smelling timber which yields an oil, used for making handicrafts.


(i) Semul

(ii) Teak

(iii) Sandalwood

10. Name one region in India for each of the following:

(i) Tidal forests.

(ii) Thom and Scrub.


(i) Tidal forest: Deltas of Ganga, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri.

(ii) Thom and scrub forest: Rajasthan and Gujarat.

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