ICSE Solutions for Chapter 11 Transport in India Class 10 Geography

Very Short Questions

1. What are the means of Transport by Land?


Roads and Railways.

2. What are Roads?


Roads are routes of travel by two-wheelers, three-wheelers, cars, trucks and buses.

3. What is the importance of Jhansi in this network of roads?


Jhansi is the junction of the NS-EW Corridors.

4. Which are the three Gauges in the Indian Railways? 


Broad, Metre and Narrow Gauge. 

5. Why has travel by Sea decreased? 


The expansion of the Railways and the development of roads have reduced the importance of Water Transport. 

Short Questions

1. What is the meaning of Transport? What are the three means of Transport? 


Transport is the means of carrying people and goods from one place to another. The three  means of transport are: Land, Water and Air. 

2. How are roads classified? 


Roads are classified according to their importance as: 

  1. Expressways
  2. National Highways (NH)
  3. State Highways
  4. Major and Minor District Roads
  5. Village Roads

3. What are National Highways?


They are the major trunk roads which link the far comers of our land. They are maintained by the Central Government and serves inter-state traffic. They connect the capital cities, ports and important towns.

4. What is the Golden Quadrilateral (GQ)? Why is it so called?


This is the biggest and most ambitious project. It connects Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai forming a quadrilateral of sorts. 

5. Name the four sections of the Golden Quadrilateral. 


The four sections are: 

  1. Delhi-Kolkata NH 2 
  2. Chennai-Mumbai NH 4/7/46 
  3. Kolkata-Chennai NH 5 
  4. Mumbai-Delhi NH 8/76/79 

6. Mention any two ways in which Golden Quadrilateral will help in the economic development of the country?


The Golden Quadrilateral is a highway network connecting India’s for largest metropolises: Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata the project will help industrial development by easing the process of supply of raw materials. It will also help to connect many remote areas with the main cities.

7.Which are the stretches of roads common to the GQ and the N-S and E-W Corridors? 


The four stretches are: 

  1. Delhi-Agra common to GQ and NS Corridor. 
  2. Sikandra-Kanpur common to GQ and EW Corridor. 
  3. Bangalore- Krishnagiri common to GQ and NS Corridor. 
  4. Udaipur-Chittorgarh common to GQ and EW Corridor.

8. Why is the Railway system divided into Zones? How many Railway Zones are there? 


For efficiency and convenience the Railway system is divided into Zones. There are 17 Railway Zones. 

9. Mention any three problems being faced by the Indian Railways. 


  1. Railways are difficult to construct in the hilly and mountainous parts of India. 
  2. The huge size of the country makes it difficult to connect the remote parts of the country. 
  3. Obsolete trains, tracks and equipment make railway unsafe.

10. What purpose does sea travel serve now-a-days?


India has over 14,000 kilometres of navigable waterways made up of rivers and canals. For example, the backwaters of Kerala are extensively used to carry goods and the local products. The shipping of mineral ore, petroleum, heavy machinery, supplement internal, transport facilities. 

11. Mention one advantage and one disadvantage each of inland waterways.


Advantage: Inland water ways are the cheapest means of transport and suitable for carrying heavy and bulky materials.

Disadvantage: Water transport is limited to the areas where rivers are navigable and oceanic routes exist.

Long Questions

1. Name the Current Expressways.


  1. Mumbai-Pune Expressway: 93 km., long connecting Mumbai to Pune. It forms a byepass route for NH 4 between these cities. 
  2. Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway: This 28 km. expressway goes a long way in easing traffic between Delhi, the national capital and Gurgaon a satellite city of Delhi (though lying in Haryana). 
  3. Delhi-Noida-Greater Noida: Two separate expressways providing high speed connectivity between Delhi, Noida and Greater Noida. The DND Flyway was the first expressway built in Delhi. 
  4. Ahmedabad-Vadodara Expressway: 95 km. long connecting Ahmedabad and Vadodara. It is a byepass for NH 8. 
  5. Bangalore-Mysore Infrastructure Corridor: A 111 km. long expressway in Karnataka between Bangalore and Mysore.

2. Name the future expressways. 


These are either in the planning stage or under construction. 

  1. Yamuna Expressway: Initiated in 2003, it is a 165 km. project between Agra and Greater Noida. 
  2. Ganga Expressway: It is planned as a 1,047 km. access controlled eight-lane expressway that will connect Greater Noida to Ballia. 
  3. Kundli-Manesar-Palwal Expressway: This 135 km. long expressway will run on the west of Delhi scheduled to be completed in 2009. 
  4. Hindon Expressway: This 250 km. long expressway in Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand will connect Ghaziabad to Dehradun and Haridwar. It is still in the planning stage.

3. What are the advantages of Road Transport?


  1. Fast and comfortable.
  2. It will help industrial growth of the towns through which it passes.
  3. It will help Transport of the agricultural produce from the hinterland to the major cities and ports. 
  4. It will help job opportunities.
  5. It will increase demand for steel, cement and other reconstruction materials.
  6. It helps tourism.

4. What are the demerits of our Road Transport? 


  1. Poor quality of roads and their maintenance have led to much wear and tear of vehicles and increase in accidents.
  2. The development of roads has not kept pace with the rise in population. The result is  that the roads in some of our small towns have become bottlenecks, causing traffic jams. The whole traffic scenario is chaotic.
  3. Increase in pollution caused by vehicles spewing jets of diesel vapour which is the cause of diseases, smog and climatic change.
  4. The construction of highways has given rise to displacement of people and destruction of large tracts of agricultural land.

5. What are the benefits of the Golden Quadrilateral?


  1. It will cut down travel time by about 20-25%. 
  2. It will help industrial growth of the towns through which it passes. 
  3. It will help Transport of the agricultural produce from the hinterland to the major cities and ports. 
  4. It will help job opportunities in construction as well as in demand for steel, cement and other construction materials.

6. Name four advantages and three disadvantages of Railways? 


Advantages of railways: 

  1. Fast, comfortable and cheap. 
  2. It is easy to travel from Jammu to Kanyakumari in a matter of two days. 
  3. It helps the movement of goods cheaply. 
  4. It helps in tourism. 

Disadvantages of railways: 

  1. The greatest disadvantages are the three different gauges. This causes inconveniences and delay for passengers and goods in changing trains. 
  2. On Ghats sections, rail journey can be hazardous. 
  3. Construction of new railway lines has led to displacement of people from their land. 

7. What are the problems of Air Transport? 


  1. Heavy air traffic at the major airports has increased the hazards of air travel. When many airlines await clearance for landing and taking off, the airports get heavily crowded and this makes traffic control more difficult. 
  2. Terrorism, hijackings, sabotage, are becoming more common due to politics. Steps are being taken to control them.

8. Mention two advantages and one disadvantage of air transport. 


Two advantages of air transport are: 

  1. It is the fastest and comfortable mode of transport. It connects the remote areas of the country. 
  2. Air transport can move across mountain barriers, sandy deserts, large expanses of water and forests. 

One disadvantage of air transport:

  1. It depends on weather conditions. Flights are often delayed due to bad weather. 

Give Reasons

Give Geographical Reasons for the following:

1. Why is road transport in India considered more useful than rail transport? State two reasons in support of your answer. 


  1. Road transport is more flexible than rail as buses, trucks and cars may be stopped anywhere and at any time for passengers and goods whereas trains stop at stations only.
  2. Road transports provide door to door service. Roads can negotiate high gradients and sharp turns to reach at all most all areas whereas trains cannot do the same. Roads can be constructed at hilly areas also.

2. Why is road transport favoured in the northern plains of India:


Road transport is favoured in the Northern plains due to its fertile soils and the high density of population.

3. Give reasons to explain the lack of rail transport in Northern India.


Northern India has rugged relief and large number of rivers which makes construction of railways expensive.

4. ‘The Ganga is navigable from its mouth right upto Haridwar.’


The area near the mouth of the Ganga is an extremely plain region with a very gentle slope. Due to the gentle slope, the rivers flow very steadily in the plain.

5. State two reasons why the rivers of the Deccan Plateau are non-perennial and non-navigable. 


The two reasons for the rivers of Deccan Plateau being non-navigable and non perennial are: 

  1. They flow through rocky region. 
  2. They are dependent on monsoon winds for their water. 

6. Why has the importance of inland waterways declined? Give any two reasons.


Rivers of India face the problem of silting. The depth of water in some rivers decline in the dry season making navigation difficult. It is slow means of transport.

Name the Following

1. Name three important sea ports each on the East and West Coast. 


East Coast: Chennai, Kolkata, Vishakhapatnam. 

West Coast: Mumbai, Marmagoa (Goa), Mangalore. 

2. Name four international airports.


  1. Indira Gandhi International Airport (IGI), Delhi. 
  2. Sahara Airport, Mumbai.
  3. Dum-Dum, Kolkata. 
  4. Meenambakam, Chennai. 

3. Name two National airlines.


Air India and Indian Airlines.

4. Name two private Airlines.


Kingfisher and Jet Airways. 

5. An important inland waterway of north east India.


The National Waterway No. 2. The river Brahmaputra connecting Dhubri— Guwahati— Dibrugarh. 

6. One expressway with its terminal cities.


The Sher Shah Suri Marg connecting Delhi and Amritsar.

7. A major port which is not located one the sea coast and is at a distance of 128 km from the coast along the banks of a river.


Kolkata port. 

8. Name two areas where helicopter services may be used?


Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh (hilly areas).

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