ICSE Solutions and Questions Answers for Mahatma Gandhi and the National Movement Class 10 History

We are going to learn the ICSE Solutions of eighth chapter of the History textbook of Class 10. The name of the chapter is Mahatma Gandhi and the National Movement. All types of questions including very short answer type, short answer type, structured questions and questions based on picture perception has been provided. This ICSE solutions for Mahatma Gandhi and the National Movement League will help the students in learning the chapter outcome.

Name of the chapterMahatma Gandhi and the National Movement
Subject History and Civics
Topics covered
  • Gandhiji's Methods and Directions
  • Non-Cooperation Movement
  • Civil Disobedience Movement
  • Questions Answers from Ch 8 Mahatma Gandhi and the National Movement
Related Readings

Very Short Questions

1. When and why did Gandhiji organise the Champaran Satyagraha in Bihar?


Gandhiji organised the Champaran Satyagraha in 1917 in Bihar to fight for the right of the farmers against indigo planters.

2. What is meant by Satyagraha?


Satyagraha means the force born out of truth and non-violence.

3. What is meant by Swadeshi?


What does the word 'Swadeshi' as used by Gandhiji imply?


Use of the goods produced within one's country and by one's countrymen is known as Swadeshi.

4. Why did Gandhiji put emphasis on manual labour and Charkha?


Gandhiji's Swadeshi programme was directed towards the social and economic upliftment of society, especially of the villages. Hence, he emphasised on manual labour and the use of Charkha.

5. Name the Act by the British Government in the year 1919, which gave them the authority to arrest and detain suspected Indians.


Rowlatt Act.

6. Why was the Rowlatt Act (1919) passed?


The Rowlatt Act (1919) was passed to counter all political unrest, which manifested itself in many situations.

7. What was the aim of Rowlatt Act?


These Acts were aimed at curtailing civil liberties in the disguise of curbing terrorist activities.

8. When did the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre take place?


The massacre happened on 13 April 1919, at the Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar, Punjab.

9. Who was the British General who fired at the innocent crowd at Jallianwala Bagh?


General Dyer, the military commander of Amritsar fired at the innocent gathering of people.

10. Who was the British General, responsible for 'The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre'?


General Dyer was responsible for the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.

11. Which was the tragic incident that prompted Gandhiji to launch the Non-Cooperation Movement?


The inhuman act of the British Government at Jallianwala Bagh shattered the faith of Mahatma Gandhi and promoted him to launch the Non-cooperation Movement.

12. When was All India Khilafat Committee formed?


In March 1919 in India, The All India Khilafat Committee was formed.

13. Why did Gandhiji welcome the Khilafat Movement?


Gandhi welcomed the Khilafat Movement because he saw the movement as an opportunity to cement Hindu-Muslim unity.

14. How did the Khilafat Movement come to an end?


The Khilafat Movement came to an end when Mustafa Kamal Pasha dethroned the Turkish Sultan and declared Turkey a secular republic.

15. Why is the Khilafat Movement significant in the history of the National Movement?


Khilafat Movement is significant in the history of the National Movement because it contained vast possibilities of achieving Hindu-Muslim unity and of putting up a joint front against British Imperialism.

16. When was the Non-Cooperation Movement launched by Gandhi?


Gandhi's Non-Cooperation Movement was accepted at the special session of the Congress held in Calcutta on 4th September 1920.

17. When did the Congress decide to start the Non-Cooperation Movement? Who was the leader of this movement?


Congress decided to start the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920. Gandhiji was the leader of that movement.

18. When and where was the resolution to start the Non-Cooperation Movement launched?


The resolution to start the Non-Cooperation Movement was launched in the Nagpur session of the congress on August 15, 1920.

19. What do you understand by the term Non-Cooperation?


For the smooth functioning of any government, the willing co-operation of the people is essential. The strategy of not extending such co-operation to the government for the goodwill of the people of the country is Non-Cooperation movement.

20. Mention one item each of the positive and negative programme of the Non-Cooperation Movement.


(i) Positive Programme- Hindu-Muslim Unity.

(ii) Negative Programme- Boycott of British goods.

21. Name two important methods adopted by Gandhiji in the freedom struggle.


Satyagraha and Non-Cooperation.

22. What was the full name of the Swaraj Party?


The full name of the party was "Congress Khilafat Swaraj Party".

Short Answer Type

1. Describe civil rights movement lanuched by Gandhiji in South Africa?


(i) From 1893 to 1914, Gandhiji practiced Law in South Africa.

(ii) Gandhi faced racial discrimination directed at Indians.

(iii) He founded the Natal Indian Congress in 1894 and suffered imprisonment.

(iv) In 1906, the Transvaal government promulgated an Asiatic law compelling registration of the colony's Indian population.

(v) Gandhi adopted his methodology of satyagraha (devotion to the truth), or non-violent protest.

(vi) In 1914, the authorities had to abolish three pound poll tax which Indians had to pay. Two cities i.e., Transvaal and Natal were opened to all Indians who wanted to settle there as free workers.

2. State the three early Satyagrahas led by Mahatma Gandhi.


(i) Champaran Satyagraha (1917): It was Gandhiji's first satyagraha in India to protect the indigo cultivators of Champaran (Bihar) against the exploitative system of Tin Kathia' (bound to grow indgo on 3/20th of their land).

(ii) Kheda Satyagraha (Gujarat) (1918): Gandhiji led the satyagraha to provide relief to farmers from paying rent due to crop failure. Sardar Patel became a follower of Gandhi.

(iii) Ahmedabad Satyagraha (1918): He led a mill workers strike to demand higher wages. It succeeded in increasing their wages by 35%.

3. Which Act is referred as Black Act? Why?


Rowlatt Act: On April 6, 1919, a nation wide hartal against the Act was observed. The Rowlatt Act was passed by the British government in March 1919. To control the public unrest the police could search a place and arrest any person without warrant, wherein the right of Habeas Corpus was suspended. It legalized trials of political offenders by judges in seclusion. Banned demonstrations and meetings. Gandhi described the Rowlatt Act as 'destructive to the elementary rights of an individual'. He called upon the people to do Satyagraha, i.e., to disobey the law without resorting to violence. It was referred as Black Act.

4. What was the Jallianwala Bagh Incident? When did it take place?


The police in Amritsar fired upon a peaceful procession of people who were demanding the release of two popular leaders of the Indian Independence Movement, Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlew, who had been earlier arrested on account of their protests. General Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points, and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds. His object, as he declared later, was to 'produce a moral effect', to create in the minds of the satyagrahis, a feeling of terror and awe.

Jallianwala Bagh Incident occured on April 13, 1919.

5. Why did Indian Muslims launch Khilafat movement?


Turkey fought against England in the World War I. After the War the Ottoman Empire faced dismemberment. The Sultan of Turkey, who was the Caliph, was deprived of all authority. The Muslims of India wanted to save the Islamic political power from extinction. They launched the Khilafat Movement.

6. What were the objectives of Khilafat movement?


The Khilafatists formed a three point programme:

  • The Ottoman Caliph should retain his empire.
  • The Caliph must be left with sufficient territory to enable him to defend the Islamic faith.
  • The Arab lands (Arabia, Syria, Iraq, Palestine) must remain under the Muslim rule.

7. Discuss the spread of Khilafat movement?


  • On October 17, 1919 the Khilafat day was observed on an all India scale by Ali brothers - Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali.
  • In Bengal, the Khilafat-Non-Cooperation Movement became a mass movement in which both the Muslims and Hindus participated.
  • By the end of 1920, the Khilafat Movement and the Congress Non-Cooperation Movement merged into one nationwide movement.

8. What is meant by Satyagraha?


The word Satyagraha is derived from two words Satya and Agraha. Satya means Truth and Agraha is insistence to hold fast.

9. What is meant by Swadeshi? Why did Gandhiji lay emphasis on `Swadeshi'? Give two reasons.


Swadeshi means use of the goods produced within one's country and by one's countrymen.

Gandhiji emphasise on ‘Swadeshi’ because:

  1. Gandhiji favoured `Swadeshi' to get rid of poverty and unemployment.
  2. It also aimed at hampering British trade in India.

10. Explain the value of constructive programme in Gandhian methods.


The constructive programme like removal of untouchability, upliftment of women, provision of basic education, village sanitation, promotion of khadi and village industry, etc. provided the social and moral base to the National Movement.

11. Name the movements launched by Gandhiji against British rule in India.


Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-22), Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-34) and Quit India Movement (1942-47).

12. Why was the Simon Commission boycotted everywhere?


Both the Indian National Congress (INC) and the Muslim League decided to boycott the Simon Commission because:

  • There was no Indian member in this commission. It was boycotted everywhere because all its members were Englishmen.
  • The government showed no inclination towards accepting the demand for Swaraj.

13. Mention the event which triggered the mass upsurge against Simon Commission?


On October 30, 1928, the Simon Commission arrived in Lahore. The Lahore protest was led by the Indian nationalist Lala Lajpat Rai. The local police lathi charged the protestors. The police were particularly brutal towards Lala Lajpat Rai. He later died on 17th November, 1928, because of the injuries. Police officer Saunders who was responsible for the assault was later shot dead by Bhagat Singh and Rajguru. This event triggered the mass upsurge against Simon Commission.

14. Mention recommendations of the Simon Commission.


  • Abolition of Dyarchy and grant of full provincial autonomy to the provinces with the Governors having some overriding powers in the matter of internal security.
  • Enlargement of Provincial Legislative Councils.
  • Governor General should select and appoint members of the Cabinet.
  • British troops and' British officers would stay on in India.
  • High courts should be under the administrative control of the Government of India.
  • Communal representation was to continue.

15. How did the Nehru Report drawn in 1928 lead to the launching of the Civil Disobedience Movement?


The Nehru Report declared that India's immediate objective was Dominion Status before the end of 1929. As it was not granted, the Congress decided to launch Civil Disobedience Movement.

16. When did Congress formalise it's demand of Puma Swaraj?


At its Lahore session, in December 1929, under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru, the Congress formalised the demand of 'Puma Swaraj' or full independence for India. It was declared that January 26, 1930, would be celebrated as the Independence Day.

17. Which event marked the beginning of Civil Disobedience movement?


  1. On 12th March 1930, Gandhiji along with his 78 followers began the historic march from Ashram Sabarmati to the coastal town of Dandi in Gujarat.
  2. On 6th April, he reached Dandi and ceremonially violated the law, manufactured salt by boiling seawater to disobey the government laws. This marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

18. Mention the circumstances leading to Civil Disobedience movement?


  • Failure of Simon Commission.
  • Death of Lala Lajpat Rai in the Anti-Simon Movement.
  • Non-acceptance of the Nehru report.

33. When was the Gandhi Irwin Pact signed? What were the main proposals of the Pact?


On March 5, 1931, the Gandhi Irwin Pact was signed. Important Points of the Pact: The Congress consented to the following.

  1. Withdrawal of all ordinances issued by the British Government imposing curbs on the activities of the Indian National Congress.
  2. Restoration of confiscated properties to the Congressmen.
  3. The removal of the tax on salt, allowed the Indians to produce, trade, and sell salt legally and for their own private use.
  4. Discontinuation of the Civil Disobedience movement by the Indian National Congress.

19. What were the Communal Award?


System of separate electorates was extended to Depressed Classes, Muslims, Sikhs, Indian Christians, Anglo-Indians, Europeans to serve their narrow interest. The Depressed Classes were assigned a number of seats, to be filled in by elections from special constituencies in which voters belonging to the Depressed Classes could only vote.

20. What was the agreed between Gandhiji and Ambedkar in the Poona Pact?


Gandhiji was in jail and observed fast unto death against the provisions of separate electorates for Harijans. By this Poona Pact Dr. Ambedkar agreed to replace separate electorates with reservation of seats for Harijans. This compromise was accepted by the British Government and Gandhi ended his fast.

21. Describe the role of Khudai Khidmadgars in Civil Disobedience movement?


The Movement reached the extreme north-western corner of India and stirred the brave Pathans. Under the leadership of Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan, popularly known as The Frontier Gandhi", the Pathans organised the society of Khudai Khidmadgars (Servants of God), known as popularly as Red shirts. They were pledged to non-violence and the freedom struggle.

22. How did the Civil Disobedience movement spread to the eastern parts of the nation?


The movement also became popular in the easternmost part of the country where the Manipuris joined the movement with great enthusiasm. In Nagaland, Rani Gaidilieu, at the age of 13, responded to Gandhiji's call and raised the banner of revolt against the British rule.

23. State the new methods of propaganda popularised in the civil disobedience movement.


The movement also popularised new methods of propaganda. Prabhat Pheris, in which hundreds of men and women went around singing patriotic songs in the early morning became popular in towns and villages. Handwritten Patrikas or news-sheets were issued in large numbers. Even children were organised into Vanara Sena and girls had their own separate Manjari Sena or the cat army.

24. Mention two reasons which intensified Indian Nationalism.
Two reasons which intensified Indian nationalism were:
(i) The deteriorating economic condition of Indians.
(ii) The Communist Revolution of 1917, in Russia placed a unique and inspiring idea before the Indians. 

25. What led to the dispute in the Congress?
The debate and disagreement between the Early Nationalists and Assertive Nationalists over the methods of agitation in Bengal came into the open during the anti-partition movement which led to dispute in the Indian National Congress. The Assertives wanted to extend the Swadeshi and Boycott movement from Bengal to the rest of the Country and extend boycott to every form of association with the colonial government. 

26. What happened in the Surat Session of 1907?
At Surat Session, Assertives tried to push the candidature of Lala Lajpat Rai for president-ship of Congress while Early nationlists nominated Dr. Ras Behari Ghosh to be the President. 

27. How was the dispute over presidency in the Surat Session resolved?
The situation was saved by Lala Lajpat Rai by stepping down and Dr. Ras Behari Ghosh became the president. Real trouble started when the moderates tried to repudiate the resolution on boycott, swadeshi and national education which was been adopted in 1906.

28. What initiated the Lucicnow Pact?
In 1913, a new group of Muslim leaders entered the folds of the Muslim League with the aim of bridging the gulf between the Muslims and the Hindus. The Muslim League changed its major objective and decided to join hands with the Congress in order to put pressure on the British Government. 

28. Mention any two constitutional provisions of Lucknow Pact.
Two constitutional provisions of Lucknow Pact were:
  • The Provinces should largely be free from the control of the Centre in matters of administration and finance.
  • The Government of India should be free, as far as possible, from the control of the Secretary of State of India.

29. Mention two reasons why the Lucknow pact is considered important in the history of the Indian National Congress.
The Lucknow Pact 1916 is important due to the following reasons:
  • It led to the argumentation between the Congress and Muslim League on grounds of the constitutional reforms.
  • After this Pact, the unity between Hindus and Muslims strengthened National Movement.

30. After Mrs. Annie Besant joined Congress in 1914, she started propagating her views. What were her views?
Mrs. Besant dominated the Lucknow session of the Congress at which Assertives, Moderates, Hindus and Muslims were reunited. In 1915, she formed the Home Rule League. The sell-government later became a common demand of both the Congress and Muslim League.

31. Give the names of two leaders who led the Home Rule Movement in India.
Two main leaders who led the Home Rule Movement in India are Bal Gangadhar Tikal and Annie Besasnt.

32. Discuss the British policy of divide and rule in encouraging separatist trend in Indian politics.
After the revolt of 1857 British followed the policy of divide and rule with the purpose of creating a wedge between the unity of Hindus and Muslims. After the revolt the Muslims were hated and treated with suspicion. However, as the congress movement gained momentum, British government's hatred towards Hindus also grew. British encouraged Muslim leaders like Sir Syed Ahmed Khan to convince Muslims that congress was a Hindu organisation and they should keep themselves away from it. As a result of policy of divide and rule, more and more Muslims looked to the British for protection of their interests against the Hindu majority.

33. How did the educational backwardness of the Muslims lead to the growth of communalism in the early years of the 20th century?
The Muslims were not attracted by the Western science, Democracy or Nationalism. The Hindus, in those days were more educated in the Western sciences and culture than the Muslims. Even Christians and Parsees were comparatively more highly educated than the Muslims. The result of this backwardness was that they were not offered Government jobs whereas the Hindus were in Government jobs in a much greater number. It was natural that the Muslim masses were easily led by communal . feelings. Jawaharlal Nehru rightly said that this difference continued to show itself in many directions, such as political, economic and produced a fear among the Muslims.

34. Discuss the role of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan in the formation of Muslims League.
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first to advise the Muslims to receive western education as they had remained aloof from it which led to their political, social and economic backwardness. Initially, he was a man with liberal views and a brave nationalist. He even founded the Mohammedan Anglo Oriental College in 1875 at Aligarh to spread education. He started instigating communal sentiments among the Muslims under the influence of Mr. Beck the principal of the M.A.O. He even started advising the Muslims to stay away from the Hindus and support the British Rule in India. This paved the way for the formation of the Muslim League.

35. Why Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was called 'A Loyalist of Loyalists'?
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was a nationalist in the beginning and believed in Hindu Muslim unity. However, later on Sir Syed became separatist and loyalist of the British. He began to advise Muslims not to join congress as he feared that Hindus would dominate all fields if British leave the country. He was the founder of Mohemmaden Anglo Oriental College and other institutions for Muslims. The objective behind such institutions was to promote western education among Muslims and to promote loyalty towards the Britishers. Sir Syed promoted loyalty towards British and prevented Muslims from participating in any political movement.

36. Why did the Muslims find the partition of Bengal suited their interests?
Lord Curzon partitioned Bengal on the pretext that Bengal was too big as an administrative unit. Therefore, he wanted a division. But the real motive of the Britishers was to separate Muslims from Hindus and create communal feelings between them. Partition of Bengal gave the Muslims community a new impetus for their political activities. The Muslims considered the newly carved province of the Muslim majority as a source of their strength and also as a center of their political activity.

36. Explain the circumstances leading to the formation of Minto-Morley Reforms.
The Viceroy Lord Minto was in favour of widening the gap between the Hindus and the Muslims. In order to win over the Muslims the Viceroy decided to grant certain concessions to the Muslims. A deputation consisting of 35 prominent Muslims led by his highness Aga Than met Lord Minto in Shimla. The demands of the delegation were accepted by the Viceroy which in turn led to the formation of Minto-Morley reforms.

Structured Questions

1. State the details of the Surat Session of 1907.


In 1907 at the Surat session, the confrontation came to a head. There was a row over the election of President. At Surat session, Assertives tried to push the candidature of Lala Lajpat Rai for Presidentship of congress while Early Nationalists nominated Dr. Ras Behari Ghosh to be the President. The situation was saved by Lala Lajpat Rai by stepping down and Dr. Ras Behari Ghosh became the President. Real trouble started when the moderates tried to repudiate the resolution on boycott, swadeshi and national education which has been adopted in 1906. Gopal Krishna Gokhale and the rest of Assertive Nationalists withdrew their support from swadeshi and boycott movements as they were afraid that these movements would make the British refuse to give them more political rights.

2. The bond of alliance between the Congress and the Muslim League was cemented by the conclusion of the Lucknow Pact in 1916. In this context mention the main features of the Pact?


  1. Independent Unit: India was to be treated as an independent unit of the Empire, as a self autonomous state with equal rights and responsibility.
  2. Provincial Legislatures: Four-fifth of the members of the Provincial Legislatures were to be elected and one fifth nominated. One third of the elected members were to be Muslims.
  3. Powers of the Imperial Legislative: Defence, foreign affairs and political relations of India i.e., making of war, peace and signing of treaty were to be excluded from the control of the Imperial Legislative.
  4. Bills related to Religious Interests: No bill could be introduced in the Legislative Council if it affected the interest of any community and such a bill could not be passed if it was opposed by three-fourths of that community.
  5. Composition of Viceroy's Executive Council: Half the members of the Viceroy's Executive Council should be Indians elected by the elected members of the Imperial Legislative Council.
  6. Separation of Judiciary from Executive: Judiciary should be separated from Executive. Members of the judiciary in every Province should be placed under the control of the highest court of that Province.
  7. Abolition of Council of the Secretary of State: The Council of the Secretary of State for India shall be abolished and he shall have same position with regard to the Government of India as he does in relation to the government of self governing colonies.

3. How did Tilak bring a new wave in Indian Politics that was distinct from the early congressmen?


The new wave in Indian Politics was the result of efforts putting by Balgangadhar Tilak. The distinct features of his movement to attain Swaraj were:

  • His role in the Anti-partition Movement: The partition of Bengal gave him a big opportunity to expose evil design of the Government. Leaders like Tilak, Bipin Chandra and Lajpat Rai transformed the Anti-Partition Movement into a movement of Swaraj.
  • Bitter attacks on Government: Year after year, the Congress passed nearly the same resolutions, without much effect on the Government. Therefore, Tilak came to the conclusion that "reforms would be secured not by action."
  • Home Rule Movement: The year 1916 saw the establishment of the Home Rule leagues in Madras (Chennai) and Maharashtra. The two leagues were led by Mrs. Besant and Tilak respectively.
  • Tilak's political belief—"Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it": Tilak talked of 'Swaraj' as early as 1896-97. Swaraj and Swadeshi had become the battle cry of these robust nationalists.

4. The advent of Mahatma Gandhi into the Indian National Congress in 1919 brought a dramatic change in the National Movement. In this context explain:
(a) His doctrine of Satyagraha and Swadeshi.
(b) His belief in Non-Violence.
(c) His belief in the Mass Movement.


(a) Gandhiji's doctrine of Satyagraha' consists of two Sanskrit words. The word `Satya' means truth' and `Agraha means insistence'. So the term means 'firm insistence on truth". According to this doctrine a Satyagrahi should always be ready to accept pain and suffering. He should remain peaceful under provocation and should not harm others under any conditions. To fight injustice, a Satyagrahi should use non-violent and non-co-operative methods. `Satyagraha' stood for self-restraint and did not mean lack of courage. 'Swadeshi' literally means of one's own country'. The Swadeshi' movement was mainly directed towards social and economic upliftment of society, especially of the rural workers. He was in favour of using `Swadeshi' goods and boycott of foreign goods to harm the English trade. He emphasized the use of ‘charkha' and ‘khadi' to improve the economic condition of workers. He was in favour of establishing cottage industries in rural areas to uplift the rural people by providing them employment.

(b) Gandhiji's whole philosophy was based on non-violence. According to Gandhiji, it is the weapon of the strong. He launched many movements for gaining freedom but none of them was violent. During the Non-Co-operation movement, he suspended the movement when it was at its zenith just because of Chauri Chaura incident in which 22 policemen were burnt alive.

(c) Gandhiji realised the importance and power of the organised masses. It is the power of the masses which will force the Britishers to leave the country. He launched Non-Co-operation Movement, Civil Disobedience Movement, Quit India Movement in which workers, women, students, farmers all participated.

5. Various circumstances were responsible for the Non-Co-operation Movement started by Gandhiji. In this context, write short notes on the following:
(a) Rowlatt Act, 1919.
(b) Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy.
(c) Khilafat Movement.


(a) The Act was passed after receiving a report from the Sedition Committee headed by Justice Rowlatt. To curb the growing upsurge in the country the Rowlatt Act was passed in March 1919. This Act authorised the Government to imprison any person without trial and convict him in a court. The Act came like a sudden blow to the Indians who were expecting self governance. Gandhiji appealed to the Viceroy to withhold his consent to such measures. However, his appeal was ignored. He started `Satyagraha' as a challenge to the government.

(b) A large but peaceful crowd gathered at the Jallianwalla Bagh in Amritsar on April 13, 1919, to protest against the arrest of leaders like Dr. Saifuddin Kitchelu and Dr. Satya Pal. General Dyer, the military Commander of Amritsar surrounded the Bagh (garden) with his soldiers. After closing the exit with his troops, he ordered them to shoot at the crowd. The troops kept on firing till their ammunition was exahausted. About one thousand innocent demonstrators were killed and many more wounded. The conscience of the nation was shaken at the massacre of innocent people.

(c) The Muslim population in India started a powerful agitation known as the Khilafat Movement, under the leadership of the Ali Brothers-Mohammed Ali and Shukat Ali-Maulana Azad, Hakim Ajmal and Hasrat Mohani due to injustice done to Turkey in WWI. Mahatma Gandhi was elected as President of the All-India Khilafat Conference in November, 1919. He advised the Khilafat Committee to adopt a policy of Non-Cooperation with the Government. By August 31, 1920, the Khilafat Non-Cooperation Movement started. People resigned from government services; shops selling foreign goods were picketed, students boycotted schools and colleges; and hartals' and demonstrations were held. By the end of 1920, the Khilafat Movement and the Congress Non-Co-operation Movement merged into one nationwide movement and established an outstanding example of Hindu-Muslim unity.

6. Discuss the impact of Non Cooperation movement uder following headings:
(i) Popularised the Cult of Swaraj
(ii) Promoted Social Reforms
(iii) Congress Became a Revolutionary Movement
(iv) Constitutional changes with in Congress


(i) Popularised the Cult of Swaraj: The goal of the Non-cooperation Movement was to attain Swaraj within the British empire, if possible, and outside, if necessary. The Congress realised the nature and value of the popular support and though the movement failed immediately to attain Swaraj, it definitely came nearer to it.

(ii) Promoted Social Reforms: As a consequence of the Non-cooperation Movement several steps were taken in the direction of prohibition and removal of untouchability. Many national schools and colleges were set up in different parts of the country. The boycott of the foreign goods led to the promotion of Indian handicrafts and industries. 'Khadi' became the symbol of the National Movement.

(iii) Congress Became a Revolutionary Movement: It transformed the Indian National Congress from a deliberative assembly into an organisation for action. It became the organiser and leader of the masses in their national struggle. Thus, the Congress became a force to reckon with.

(iv) Changes in the constitution of the Congress: The movement gave a new boost to nationalism in India. At its annual session at Nagpur in December 1920, changes were made in the Constitution of the Congress. Provincial Congress Committees were reorganised on the basis of linguistic areas. The Congress was now to be led by a Working Committee of 15 members, including the President and the secretaries.

7. In the context of the Civil Disobedience Movement, explain the importance of the following:
(i) Purpose of Simon Commission
(ii) Rejection of Simon Commission
(iii) The Lahore Session of the Indian National Congress (1929).


(i) Purpose of Simon Commission: In November 1927, the British Government appointed the Indian Statutory Commission, popularly known as the Simon Commission, after the name of its Chairman Sir John Simon) to investigate the need for further constitutional reforms.

(ii) Reaction of Simon Commission:

  • The Commission was composed of seven British members of Parliament. It had no Indian member. This was seen as a violation of the principle of self-determination and a deliberate insult to the self-respect of the Indians.
  • At its Madras session in 1927, presided over by Dr. Ansari, the National Congress decided to boycott the commission 'at every stage and in every form'. The Muslim League and the Hindu Mahasabha decided to support the Congress decision.
  • On February 3, the day the Commision reached Bombay, an All India Hartal was organised. Wherever the Commission went, it was greeted with hartals and black flag demonstrations under the slogan 'Simon Go Back'.
  • Lela Lajpat Rai was beaten up mercilessly on October 30, 1928 at Lahore railway station, while leading a big demonstration and lost his life as a result of the lathi blows.

(iii) Lahore Session of the Congress (1929):  The one year time-limit set at the Calcutta session passed without any positive response from the British Government. The Nehru Report was declared to have lapsed at the Lahore Session of the Congress in 1929. Jawaharlal Nehru was made the President of the Congress at the historic Lahore session of 1929. It passed a resolution declaring Puma Swaraj (complete independence) to be the Congress objective. The Congress Working Committee met in January 1930, and decided the following programme:

  • Preparation for Civil Disobedience.
  • Puma Swaraj resolution.
  • Resignations by members of the legislature.
  • It was decided to observe January 26, as the Day of Independence every year.

8. Discuss the impact of Civil Disobedience movement with respect to:
(i) Mass participation
(ii) Moral values
(iii) New methods of protest
(iv) Contribution of Women and Dalit
(v) Legislative impact


(i) Mass participation: The Civil Disobedience movement widened the base of the freedom struggle. A large number of social groups like merchants and shopkeepers, peasants, tribals and workers in different parts of the country were mobilised for the Indian national movement.

(ii) Moral values: The movement caused a tide of patriotic fervor in the country that would not leave the Government in peace. The government withdrew the ban on the Congress in June 1934. The suspension of the movement did not mean that people had abandoned their struggle for freedom. It made people understand the significance of the principles of non-violence. People could resist violence with tolerance and courage.

(iii) New methods of protest: The movement also popularised new methods of propaganda. Prabhat Pheris, in which hundreds of men and women went around singing patriotic songs in the early morning became popular in towns and villages. Handwritten Patrikas or newssheets were issued in large numbers. Even children were organised into Vanara Sena and girls had their own separate Manjari Sena or the cat army.

(iv) Contribution of Women and Dalit: The movement under the leadership of Birla and the `Harijan Sevak Sangh' changed the social conditions. The depressed classes were given entry into temples and access to wells, which was earlier denied to them. It brought women out their homes to participate in politics and to make them equal partners in the freedom struggle.

(v) Legislative impact: The Government was convinced that basic constitutional reforms were necessary. The Govenment of India Act 1935, introduced the principle of a Federation and the principle of Provincial Autonomy; i.e. responsible government in the provinces.

Picture Based Questions

1. Answer the following:
(i) Identify the male personality in the given picture.
(ii) Mention four ideological tenets of this Indian leader.


(i) Mahatma Gandhi.

(ii) Four ideological tenets of this Indian leader are :
(a) Non-violence
(b) Satyagraha
(c) Swadeshi
(d) Truth

2. Identify the picture as shown and answer the following:
(i) With which movement it is associated?
(ii) When and where the movement took place?


(i) This picture is associated with the Dandi March.

(ii) Dandi March was started on 12 March 1930 from Sabarmati Ashram at Ahmedabad and ended at Dandi, a village on the Gujarat sea-coast on 5 April 1930, where Gandhiji violated the salt laws.

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