# ICSE Solutions for Chapter 1 Periodic Table, Periodic Properties and Variations Class 10 Selina Chemistry

### Intext Questions 1

1. a) State modern periodic law. Name the scientist who stated the law.
b) What is a periodic table? How many groups and periods does modern periodic table have?

Solution
a) The modern periodic law states that "The properties of elements are the periodic functions of their atomic number." Henry Moseley put forward the modern periodic law.

b) A tabular arrangement of the elements in groups (vertical columns) and periods (horizontal rows) highlighting the regular trends in properties of elements is called a Periodic Table. Modern Periodic table has 7 periods and 18 groups.

2. Why sodium element of group 1 and chlorine element of group 17 both have valency 1?

Solution
Valency is the combining capacity of the atom of an element. It is equal to the number of electrons an atom can donate or accept or share. It is just a number and does not have a positive or negative sign.
Group 1 elements have 1 electron in their outermost orbital, while Group 7 elements have 7 electrons in their outermost orbital.
Valency depends on the number of electrons in the outermost shell (i.e. valence shell). If the number of electrons present in the outermost shell is 1, then it can donate one electron while combining with other elements to obtain a stable electronic configuration. If the number of electrons present in the outermost shell is 7, then its valency is again 1 (8 - 7 = 1) as it can accept 1 electron from the combining atom.
In a given period, the number of electrons in the valence (outermost) shell increases from left to right. But the valency increases only up to Group 14, where it becomes 4, and then it decreases, that is, it becomes 1 in Group 17.

3. What are horizontal rows and vertical columns in a periodic table known as ?

Solution
The horizontal rows are known as periods and vertical columns in the periodic table are known as groups

4. Periodicity is observed due to the similar ..........
(Number of valence electrons / atomic number / electronic configuration).

Solution
Periodicity is observed due to the similar electronic configuration.
(Number of valence electrons/atomic number/electronic configuration).

5. How does the electronic configuration in atoms change
(i) in a period from left to right?
(ii) in a group top to bottom?

Solution
(i) Though the number of shells remain the same, number of valence electrons increases by one, as we move across any given period from left to right.
(ii) While going from top to bottom in a group, the number of shells increases successively i.e. one by one but the number of valence electrons remains the same.

6. Correct the statements.
(i) Elements in the same periods have equal valency.
(ii) Valency depends upon the number of shells in an atom.
(iii) Copper and zinc are representative elements.
(iv) Transition elements are placed at extreme right of the periodic table.

Solution
(i) Elements in the same group have equal valency.
(ii) Valency depends upon the number of valence electrons in an atom.
(iii) Copper and zinc are transition elements.
(iv) Noble gases are placed at the extreme right of the periodic table.

7. Name two elements in each case:
 (i) Alkali metals (ii) Alkaline earth metals (iii) Halogens (iv) Inert gas (v) Transition element (vi) Lanthanides (vii) Actinides

Solution
 (i) Alkali metals Sodium and Potassium (ii) Alkaline earth metals Calcium and Magnesium (iii) Halogens Chlorine and Bromine (iv) Inert gas Neon and Argon (v) Transition element Iron and Cobalt (vi) Lanthanides Cerium and Europium (vii) Actinides Uranium and Neptunium

8. What do you understand by?
(i) Periodicity:
(ii) Typical elements:
(iii) Orbits:

Solution
(i) The properties that reappear at regular intervals, or in which there is a gradual variation at regular intervals, are called periodic properties and the phenomenon is known as the periodicity of elements.
(ii) The third-period elements, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P and Cl summarize the properties of their respective groups and are called typical elements.
(iii) The elements of the second period show resemblance in properties with the elements of the next group of the third period leading to a diagonal relationship. Such elements are called bridge elements.

9. Why are noble gases placed in a separate group?

Solution
Noble gases are unreactive since they have their outermost orbit complete. Due to stable electronic configuration, they hardly react with other elements. So these elements are placed in a separate group i.e.18

10. Name two elements you would expect to show chemical reactions similar to calcium. What is the basis of your choice?

Solution
Beryllium and magnesium will show similar chemical reactions as calcium. Since these elements belong to same group 2 and also have two electrons in their outermost shell like calcium.

11. Name the metal(s) and non-metals in the first twenty elements.
Metals:
Non-
metals:

Solution
Metals: Lithium, Beryllium, Sodium, Magnesium, Aluminium, Potassium, Calcium.
Non-metals: Hydrogen, Helium, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Fluorine, Neon, Phosphorus, Sulphur, Chlorine, Argon.

12. Name the type of elements, which have their:
(i) Outermost shell complete –.........
(ii) Outermost shell incomplete –.......
(iii) two outermost shell incomplete – .......
(iv)one electron short of octet – .......
(v) two electrons in the outermost orbit - ..........

Solution
(i) Outermost shell complete – Noble gases
(ii) Outermost shell incomplete – Representative elements
(iii) two outermost shell incomplete – Transition elements
(iv) one electron short of octet – Halogens
(v) two electrons in the outermost orbit - Alkaline Earth metals

13. An element has 2 electrons in its N shell.
(i) What is its atomic number?
(ii) State its position in periodic table
(iii) Is is metal or non-metal?
(iv) State the name assigned to this group?

Solution
(i) 30
(ii) It belongs to group 12 and fourth period.
(iii) It is a metal.
(iv) The name assigned to this group is IIB

14. State the valency of the elements of periods 3 and write the formula of their oxides.

Solution
 Elements Valency Formula of oxides Na 1 Na2O Mg 2 MgO Al 3 Al2O3 Si 4 SiO2 P 5 P2O5 S 2 SO2 Cl 1 Cl2O

15. An element A has atomic number 14. To which period does this element belong and how many elements are there in this period.

Solution
An element A with atomic number 14 belongs to period three and there are eight elements in this period.

16. Answer the following in respect of element 34/15 P
(i) Give its electronic configuration
(ii) To which group and period does it belong?
(iii) What is its valency?
(iv) Is it a metal or non - metal
(v) Is it a reducing agent or oxidizing agent?
(vi) Give its formula with chlorine.

Solution
(i) Electronic configuration of P: 2, 8, 5
(ii) 15th Group and 3rd Period.
(iii) Valency of P = 8 - 5 = 3
(iv) Phosphorus is a non-metal.
(v) It is an oxidizing agent.
(vi) Formula with chlorine = PCl3

### Intext Question 2

1. Name any five periods properties.

Solution
(i) Electron affinity
(ii) Atomic size
(iii) Metallic character
(iv) Non-metallic character
(v) Ionization energy

2. What do you understand by atomic size? State its unit.

Solution
Atomic size is the distance between the centre of the nucleus of an atom and its outermost shell.
It's measured in Angstrom and Picometre

3. Give the trends in atomic size on moving:
(i) down the group
(ii) across the period right to left.

Solution
(i) The atomic size of an atom increases when we go down a group from top to bottom
(ii) It increases as we move from right to left in a period

4. Arrange the elements of second and third periods in increasing order of their atomic size.
(i) Second Period
(ii) Third Period

Solution
(i) Second Period: Fluorine <Neon< Oxygen< Nitrogen < Carbon < Boron< Beryllium
< Lithium.
(ii) Third Period: Chlorine < Argon < Sulphur < Phosphorus < Silicon < Aluminum < Magnesium < Sodium.

5. Why is the size of (i) neon greater than fluorine? (ii) sodium is greater than magnesium?

Solution
(i) The size of Neon is bigger compared to fluorine because the outer shell of neon is complete(octet). As a result, the effect of nuclear pull over the valence shell electrons cannot
be seen. Hence the size of Neon is greater than fluorine.
(ii) Since atomic number of magnesium is more than sodium but the numbers of shells are same, the nuclear pull is more in case of Mg atom. Hence its size is smaller than sodium.

6. Which is greater in size?
(i) an atom or a cation
(ii) an atom or an anion
(iii) Fe2+ or Fe3+

Solution
(i) An atom is always bigger than cation since cation is formed by the loss of electrons; hence protons are more than electrons in a cation. So the electrons are strongly attracted by the nucleus and are pulled inward.
(ii) An anion is bigger than an atom since it is formed by gain of electrons and so the number of electrons are more than protons. The effective positive charge in the nucleus is less, so less inward pull is experienced. Hence the size expands.
(iii) An anion is bigger than an atom since it is formed by gain of electrons and so the number of electrons are more than protons. The effective positive charge in the nucleus is less, so less inward pull is experienced. Hence the size expands.

7. Metallic character and non-metallic character are periodic properties discuss.

Solution
The periodic variation in electronic configuration as one move sequentially in increasing order of atomic number produces a periodic variation in properties.
As the elements are arranged in increasing order of atomic number, the metals with tendency to lose electrons are placed on the left and the metallic character decreases from left to right and increases down a group and non-metals with tendency to gain electrons are placed automatically on the right and the non-metallic character increase across a period and decreases down a group.

8. Give the trend in metallic character:
(i) across the period left to right,
(ii) down the group top to bottom.

Solution
(i) The metallic character decreases as we go from left to right in a period.
(ii) It increases as we go down a group

9. State the trends in chemical reactivity:
(i) across the periods left to right
(ii) Down the group

Solution
(i) Across a period, the chemical reactivity of elements first decreases and then increases.
(ii) Down the group, chemical reactivity increases as the tendency to lose electrons increases down the group.

10. State the trends in physical properties on moving down the group. Give an example to illustrate.

Solution
The melting and boiling points of metals decrease on going down the group.
Example: Observe the trend in group 1 elements given in the following table:
 Metals m.p. b.p. Li 180.5°C 1347°C Na 94.5°C 883°C K 63.5°C 774°C

From the above table, it is clear that m.p. and b.p. decrease from Li to K. The melting and boiling points of non-metals increase on going down the group.
Example: Observe the trend in Group 17 elements given in the following table:
 Non-metals m.p. b.p. Physical State Fluorine -219.6°C -187°C Gas Chlorine -101°C -34.6°C Gas Bromide -7.2°C +58.8°C Liquid Iodine +113.6°C +183°C Solid

11. An element X belong to 4th period and 17th group, state.
(i) no of valence electrons in it
(ii) name of the element.
(iii) name the family to which it belong.
(iv) Write the formula of the compound formed when it reacts with 27/13 y

Solution
(i) The element from the 17th group has 7 electrons in its outermost shell.
(ii) The name of the element is bromine.
(iii) Bromine belongs to the halogen family.
(iv) The element 2713 Y has three electrons in its outermost shell which it can donate; hence, its valency is three. While the valency of bromine is
1. Thus, 13' can donate three electrons, and bromine can accept 1 electron to get the stable electronic configuration.
Therefore, the formula of the compound is AlBr3

12. The given table shows elements with the same number of electrons in its valence shell.
State:
(i) Whether these elements belong to same group or period.
(ii) Arrange them in order of increasing metallic character.

Solution
(i) Yes, these elements belong to the same group but are not from the same period.
(ii) We know that m.p. decreases on going down the group. Hence, from the above table, the elements can be ordered according to their period as follows:

The metallic character increases as one moves down the group.
Hence, the order of the given elements with increasing metallic character is as follows: B

### Intext Question 3

1. (a) Define the term ‘ionisation potential
(b) Represent in the form of an equation. In which unit it is measured?

Solution
(a) The energy required to remove an electron from a neutral isolated gaseous atom and convert it into a positively charged gaseous ion is called Ionization energy or ionization potential.
(b) M(g) + I.E - M+ (g) + e-
M can be any element
It is measured in electron volts per atom. Its S.I unit kJmol-1

2. What do you understand by successive ionization energies?

Solution
The energy required to remove the residual electrons one by one is called successive ionization energy.

3. State the trends in ionization energy:
(a) across the period:
(b) down the group.

Solution
(a) Ionization energy increases as we move from left to right across a period as the atomic size decreases.
(b) Ionization energy decreases down a group as the atomic size increases.

4. Name the elements with highest and lowest ionization energies.

Solution
Helium has the highest ionization energy of all the elements while cesium has the lowest ionization energy

5. Arrange the elements of second and third period in increasing order of ionization energy.

Solution
Second period: Neon > Fluorine > Oxygen > Nitrogen > Carbon > Boron > Beryllium > Lithium
Third Period: Argon> Chlorine > Sulphur > Phosphorus > Silicon > Aluminum >Magnesium > Sodium

6. (a) Define the term 'electron affinity'.
(b) Arrange the elements of second period in increasing order of their electron affinity. Name the elements which do not follow the trend in this period.

Solution
(a) Electron affinity is the energy released when a neutral gaseous atom acquires an electron to form an anion.
(b) Second period:
Lithium<Boron<Carbon<Oxygen<Fluorine
Neon, Nitrogen and Beryllium do not follow the trend.

7. State the factors on which electron affinity depends.

Solution
Electron affinity depends on:
(a) Atomic size
(b) Nuclear charge

8. Electron affinity values generally ______across the periods left to right and_____down the group top to bottom.

Solution
Electron affinity values generally increases across the periods left to right and decreases down the group top to bottom.

9. Give reason:
(a) Electron affinity of halogens is comparatively high,
(b) Electronegativity of chorine is higher than Sulphur.

Solution
(a) As we move from left to right the increase in atomic number and decrease in size results in a greater nuclear pull. As a result, the ability to attract the electrons increases, and so does the electron affinity.
But noble gases have complete stable octet configuration, hence their electron affinity is lower than halogens.
Hence halogens on extreme right have highest electron affinity in a period.
(b) Chlorine is smaller than sulphur with a bigger atomic number. Since its nuclear pull is more, hence its electron affinity is higher than sulphur.

10. Why fluorine has higher E.N. than chorine?

Solution
Since size of chlorine is bigger than fluorine hence the electrons being farther away from the nucleus experience a lesser force of attraction, hence electron negativity of chlorine is less than fluorine

11. Define the term 'Electronegativity' state its unit.

Solution
Electronegativity measures an atom's tendency to attract shared pair of electrons towards itself. Its S.I unit is Pauling unit.

12. (a) Name the elements with highest and lowest electronegativity,
(b) State the character of the oxide of period 3.

Solution
(a) The element fluorine has the highest electronegativity and Cesium has the lowest electronegativity.
(b) The nature of oxides changes from basic to acidic as we move from left to right in third period. Hence sodium forms most basic oxide while oxide of Aluminum is amphoteric and oxides of phosphorus, sulphur and chlorine are progressively acidic.

13. Name the periodic property which relates to the:
(a) Amount of energy required to remove an electron from an isolated gaseous atom,
(b) character of element which loses one or more electrons when supplied with energy.
(c) tendency of an atom to attract the shared pair of electron.

Solution
(a) Ionization energy
(b) Metallic character
(c) Electronegativity

14.
Explain the following:
(a) Group 17 elements are strong non-metals, while group 1 elements are strong metals
(b) Metallic character of elements decreases from left to right in a period while it increases in moving down a group.
(c) Halogens have a high electron affinity.
(d) The reducing power of element increases down in the group while decreases in a period.
(e) Size of atom progressively becomes smaller when we move from sodium (Na) to chlorine(CI) in the third period of the periodic table.

Solution
(a) On moving across a period, nuclear pull increases because of the increase in atomic number, and thus, the atomic size decreases. Hence, elements cannot lose electrons easily. Hence, Group 17 elements are strong non-metals, while Group 1 elements are strong metals.

(b) On moving across a period, nuclear pull increases because of the increase in atomic number, and thus, the atomic size decreases. Hence, elements cannot lose electrons easily. Hence, Group 17 elements are strong non-metals, while Group 1 elements are strong metals. Down a group, the atomic size increases and the nuclear charge also increases. The effect of an increased atomic size is greater as compared to the increased nuclear charge. Therefore, metallic nature increases as one moves down a group, i.e. they can lose electrons easily.

(c) The atomic size of halogens is very small. The smaller the atomic size, the greater the electron affinity, because the effective attractive force between the nucleus and the valence electrons is greater in smaller atoms, and so the electrons are held firmly.

(d) The reducing property depends on the ionisation potential and electron affinity of the
elements. In a period, from left to right in a horizontal row of the periodic table, the atomic size decreases and the nuclear charge increases, so the electron affinity and ionisation energy both increase. Hence, the tendency to lose electrons decreases across the period from left to right and thus the reducing property also decreases across the period from left to right. The electron affinity and ionisation potential decreases along the group from top to bottom. Hence, the tendency to lose electrons increases, and thus, the reducing property also increases along the group from top to bottom.

(e) In a period, the size of an atom decreases from left to right. This is because the nuclear charge, i.e. the atomic number increases from left to right in the same period, thereby bringing the outermost shell closer to the nucleus. Therefore, considering the third period given above, it has been found that sodium is the largest in size, while chlorine is the smallest.

### Exercise -1

1. (a) How does the electronic configuration of an atom relate to its position in the modern periodic table ?
(b) Write the number of protons, neutrons and electronic configuration of 39/19 K, 31/15P.
Also state their position in periodic table.

Solution
(a) The total number of electron shells in an atom determines the period to which the element belongs, and the valence electrons determine the group to which it will belong. So with the help of electronic configuration we can figure out the period and group number of an element.
Elements with one and two valence electrons belong to group 1 and 2 respectively, while to determine the group number of elements with 3 to 8 valence electrons, we add 10 to their valence electrons.
For example an element X has atomic number 15
Its configuration will be:
K shell has 2 electrons, L will have 8, and the remaining 5 will be placed in M shell Since it has three shells it belongs to period 3 and with 5 valence electrons the element will be placed in five plus ten that is the 15th group
So with the help of electronic configuration we can figure out the period and group number of an element.

(b) Atomic number = Number of protons
Hence, number of protons in K atom = 19
Number of neutrons = Mass number - Atomic number
Hence, number of neutrons in K atom = 39–19 = 20
Number of electrons = Number of protons
Hence, number of electrons = 19
And electronic configuration of K atom = 2, 8, 8, 1
Since K atom has 4 shells, hence it belongs to fourth period.
With one valence electron, it belongs to group 1
Number of protons in P atom = 15
Number of neutrons in P atom = 31-15 = 16
Number of electrons in P atom = 15
And electronic configuration of P atom = 2, 8, 5
Since it has three shells, it belongs to period 3 and with 5 valence electrons Phosphorus is found in five plus ten that is 15th group.

2. Fluorine, chlorine and Bromine are put in one group on basis of their similar properties.
(a) what are those similar properties?
(b) What is the common name of this group or family?

Solution
(a) Fluorine, chlorine and bromine are non-metals with seven valence electrons. They are highly electronegative elements with valency of one. They exist as diatomic molecules. They form ionic compounds with alkali metals
(b) They are known as halogens. The term means salt forming and therefore compounds
containing these elements are called salts.

3. What is the main characteristic of the last element in each period of the periodic table? What is the general name of such elements?

Solution
The last element in each period of the periodic table is a gaseous element with its valence shell completely filled. Except for helium with complete duplet configuration, rest all the 5 gases have complete octet configuration.
These group 18 elements are commonly referred to as noble gases.

4. According to atomic structure, what determines which element will be the first and which will be the last in a period?

Solution
The electronic configuration of an element determines its position in Modern Periodic table. The element with one valence electron is the first while the element with 8 valence electrons is placed in the 18th group of a period.

5. How does the number of:
(i) valence electrons and
(ii) valency vary on moving from left to right in the second period of the periodic table?

Solution
(i) The number of valence electrons increases by one as we move from left to right in a period. The group number 1 and 2 have 1 and 2 valence electrons respectively while group 13 to 18 have group number minus 10 = valence electrons. So, group 13 to 18 have 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 valence electrons respectively.
(ii) Valency is determined by the number of valence electrons. For elements belonging
to group 1, 2 and 13, the valency is equal to the number of valence electrons, so their valency is 1, 2 and 3 respectively.
Since the elements in group 14 to 17 needs to gain electrons to complete their octet configuration. Their valency is 8 minus the number of valence electrons. So their valencies are 4, 3, 2 and 1 respectively.

6. Fill in the blanks:
(a) The horizontal rows in the periodic table are called ……….
(b) On moving across a period from right to left in periodic table, the atomic size of the atom………….
(c) on moving from right to left in the second period, the number of valence electrons.........

Solution
(a) The horizontal rows in the periodic table are called Periods.
(b) On moving across a period from right to left in periodic table, the atomic size of the atom increases.
(c) on moving from right to left in the second period, the number of valence electrons decreases

7. An element barium has atomic number 56. Look up its position in the periodic table and answer the following questions
(a) Is it a metal or a non- metal?
(b) Is it more or less reactive than calcium?
(c) What is its valency?
(d) What will be the formula of its phosphate?
(e) Is it larger or smaller than cesium (Cs)?

Solution
(a) Since it belongs to group II, it has 2 valence electrons and hence it is a metal.
(b) Barium is placed below calcium in the group. Since, it has more number of shells; it is easier for it to lose its valence electrons to complete its octet configuration. Hence it is more reactive than calcium.
(c) It needs to lose its 2 valence electrons to complete its octet configuration; therefore its valency is also 2.
(d) The formula of its phosphate will be (Ba)3(PO4)2
(e) As we move from left to right in a period, the size decreases, therefore, it will be smaller than Cesium

8. How do the following change on moving from left to right in a period of the periodic table? Give examples in support of your answer.
(a) atomic structure (electron arrangements)
(b) Chemical reactivity of elements.
(c) Nature of oxides of the elements.

Solution
(a) The number of valence electrons increases by one as we move across any given period.
Therefore as we move from Lithium to Neon in period 2, the valence electrons will
increase from 1 to 7.

(b) The metallic character decreases as we move from left to right while the non metallic
character increases.
Ongoing from left to right in a period, the chemical reactivity of elements first decreases and then increases.
For example in period 3, Sodium is the most reactive metal and Chlorine is the most reactive non-metal and Silicon is least reactive

(c) The oxides of metals are basic and that of non-metals are acidic in general. Therefore since
metallic strength decreases and non-metallic strength increases on moving from left to right across a period, the strength of basic oxides decreases, while the strength of acidic oxides
increases.
For example, sodium forms a basic oxide, while sulphur and phosphorus form acidic oxides.

9. This question refers to the elements of the periodic table with atomic number from 3 to 18. Some of the elements are shown by letters, but the letters are not the usual symbols of the elements.
Which of these:
(a) have most electronegative element.

(b) is a halogen?
(c) is an alkali metal?
(d) is an element with valency 4?
(e) have least ionization energy?
(f) have least atomic size in period 3.

Solution
(a) Noble gases- H and P
(b) Halogens- G and O
(c) Alkali metals - A and I
(d) D and L have valency of 4
(e) I with atomic number 11.
(f) Cl has the least atomic size in period 3 with atomic number 17.

10. In group I of the periodic table, three elements X, Y and Z have ionic radii 1.33 A°, 0.95 A° and 0.60 A˚ respectively. Giving a reason, arrange them in the order of increasing atomic number in the group.

Solution
As we move down a group, the numbers of shells increases and hence the atomic size increases.
Therefore, Z will have the smallest atomic number followed by Y, while X will have the largest atomic number.
So the elements in order of increasing atomic number will be Z<Y<X.

11. How does the chemical reactivity of:
(a) alkali metals vary?
(b) halogens vary?

Solution
(a) Since, the distance of the valence electrons from the nucleus keeps on increasing down the group, therefore, the ionization energy keeps on decreasing. Hence the reactivity of alkali metals increases from lithium to francium.
(b) As we move down a group, the size keeps on increasing, so it becomes more difficult for
atoms to attract electrons. Thus reactivity of halogens decreases from Fluorine to Astatine.

12. An element X belong to 3rd periods and group II of the periodic table state:
(a) the number of valence electrons,
(b) the valency,
(c) name of the element,
(d) whether it is a metal or a non-metal.

Solution
(a) Since it belongs to period 3 it has 3 shells, K, L and M. The outermost M shell will have 2 valence electrons as it is placed in group II
(b) With 2 valence electrons, its valency will be 2.
(c) Since it has electronic configuration of 2, 8, 2, its atomic number is 12 and hence X is  Magnesium
(d) It is a metal.

13. The electronic configuration of an element T is 2, 8, 8, 1.
(a) What is the group number of T?
(b) What is the period number of T?
(c) How many valence electrons are there in an atom of T?
(d) What is the valency of T?
(e) Is it a metal or a non-metal?

Solution
(a) Group 1 since the valence electrons is 1
(b) With 4 shells T belong to period 4.
(c) Number of electrons = 2+8+8+1 = 19
(d) T needs to lose one electron to complete its octet hence its valency is 1
(e) Since it has one valence electron, it is a metal.

14. Arrange the elements of group 17 and group 1 according to the given conditions.
(a) Increasing order of atomic size,
(b) Increasing non - metallic character
(c) Increasing ionization potential
(d) Increasing electron affinity
(e) Decreasing electronegativity.

Solution
(a) Group 1: Lithium< Sodium< Potassium< Rubidium < Caesium< Francium
Group 17: Fluorine < Chlorine < Bromine< Iodine < Astatine
(b) Group 1: Francium
Group 17: Astatine< Iodine< Bromine< Chlorine< Fluorine
(c) Group 1: Francium< Cesium< Rubidium< Potassium Sodium<
Lithium Group 17: Astatine< Iodine< Bromine< Chlorine< Fluorine
(d) Group 1:
Francium Group
17: Astatine
(e) Group 1: Lithium>Sodium> Potassium> Rubidium> Cesium> Francium
Group 17: Fluorine > Chlorine> Bromine > Iodine > Astatine

15. Complete the following sentences choosing the correct word or words from those given in brackets at the end of each sentence:
(a) The properties of the elements are a periodic function of their ............... (atomic number, mass number, reative atomic mass).
(b) Moving across a .............. of the periodic table the elements show increasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....character (group, period, metallic, non-metallic). (c) The elements at the bottom of a group would be expected to show ........ metallic character than the element at the top. (less, more).
(d) The similarities in the properties of a group of elements are because they have the same ...... (electronic configuration, number of outer electrons, atomic numbers).

Solution
(a) The properties of the elements are a periodic function of their atomic number (atomic number, mass number, reative atomic mass).
(b) Moving across a period of the periodic table the elements show increasing non-metallic character (group, period, metallic, non-metallic).
(c) The elements at the bottom of a group would be expected to show more metallic character
than the element at the top. (less, more).
(d) The similarities in the properties of a group of elements are because they have the same number of outer electrons (electronic configuration, number of outer electrons, atomic numbers).

16. Give reasons for the following:
(a) The size of the anion is greater than the size of the parent atom.
(b) argon atom is bigger than the chlorine atom.
(c) Ionisation potential of the element increases across a period.

Solution
(a) Anion is formed by the gain of electrons. Thus the numbers of electrons are more than protons. The effective positive charge in the nucleus is less, so less inward pull is experienced. Hence the size expands. So the size of an atom is greater than the size of parent atom.

(b) Since, Argon has stable octet configuration, so due to the inter - electronic repulsions the
effect of nuclear pull over the valence shell electrons cannot be seen which results in the bigger size.

(c) Since size of Bromine is bigger than chlorine, so it becomes more difficult for Br atoms to attract electrons. Thus, Cl is more reactive than Br.

17. Which element has:
(a) two shells, both of which are completely filled with electrons?
(b) the electronic configuration 2, 8, 3?
(c) a total of three shells with five electrons in its valence shell?
(d) a total of four shells with two electrons in its valence shell?
(e) twice as many electrons in its second shell as in its first shell?

Solution
(a) Neon
(b) Aluminum
(c) Phosphorus
(d) Calcium
(e) Carbon

18. Name
(a) An alkali metal in period 3 and halogen in period 2.
(b) The noble gas with 3 shells.
(c) The non-metals present in period 2 and metals in period 3.
(d) The element of period 3 with valency 4
(e) The element in period 3 which does not form oxide
(f) The element of lower nuclear charge out of Be and Mg.
(g) Which has higher E.A. fluorine or Neon.
(h) Which has maximum metallic character Na, Li or K.

Solution
(a) Na and F
(b) Argon
(c) C, N, O and F are non-metals present in period 2 while Na, Mg and Al are metals in period 3.
(d) Silicon
(e) Argon
(f) Mg
(g) Fluorine
(h) K

19. Chorine in the periodic table is surrounded by the elements with atomic number 9, 16, 18 and 35.
(a) Which of these have physical and chemical properties resembling chlorine.
(b) Which is more electronegative than chlorine

Solution
(a) Element with atomic number 9 and 35
(b) Element with atomic number 9.

20. (a) State the number of elements in periods 1, Periods 2, and Period 3, of the periodic table.
(b) name the elements in period 1.
(c) What is the common feature of the electronic configuration of the elements at the end of period 2, and period 3?
(d) if an element is in group 17, it is likely to be .............. (Metallic / non-metallic) in character while with one electron in its outermost energy level (shell), then it is likely to be ............... (Metallic/Non-metallic)

Solution
(a) Period 1 has 2 elements while period 2 and period 3 have 8 elements each.
(b) Hydrogen and helium
(c) The elements at the end of period 2 and Period 3 have 8 electrons in its outermost shell.
(d) if an element is in group 17, it is likely to be Non metallic (Metallic/non-metallic) in character while with one electron in its outermost energy level (shell), then it is likely to be metallic (Metallic / Non-metallic)

21. First ionization enthalpy of two elements X and Y are 500KJ mol-1 and 375KJ mol-1 respectively. Comment about their relative position in a group as well as in a period.

Solution
Position in a group: X and Y
Position in a period: Y and X

22. A metal M forms as oxide having the formula M2O3. It belongs to third period. Write the atomic number and valency of the metal.

Solution
Period no. = no. of shells, so n = 3
From the formula M2O3 its valency is 3.
Since it is a metal, its valence shell has 3 electrons.
So its electronic configuration is 2, 8, 3
Atomic number = 13
Hence the metal is Aluminum with valency 3.

23. Explain why are the following statements not correct:
(a) All groups contain metals and non metals.
(b) Atoms of elements in the same group have the same number of electron(s)
(c) Non- metallic character decreases across a period with increase in atomic number
(d) Reactivity increases with atomic number in a group as well as in a period.

Solution
(a) Since the elements in a group have same number of valence electrons, they can either contain metals or non-metals like alkali and alkaline metals have only metals whereas halogens are non-metals.

(b) No two elements have the same number of electrons instead atoms of the same elements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons.

(c) Non-metals have the tendency to gain electrons to attain stable configuration and therefore are said to be electronegative. As we move from left to right the increase in atomic number and decrease in size results in a greater nuclear pull. As a result the non-metallic character increases across a period.

(d) On moving from left to right in a period, the reactivity first decreases and then increases since the tendency to lose electrons first decreases on going from left to right and then from P to Cl, tendency to gain electrons increases, so reactivity increases then. In case of a group, reactivity increases on going down since the tendency to lose electrons increases but for non-metals, reactivity decreases on going down the group as the tendency to gain electrons decreases down the group.

24. Arrange the following in order of increasing radii:
(a) Cl, Cl-
(b) Mg2+, Mg, Mg+
(c) N, O, P

Solution
(a) Cl< Cl-
(b) Mg2+ < Mg+ < Mg
(c) O < N < P

25. Which element from the following has the highest ionization energy?
Explain your choice. (a) P, Na, Cl
(b) F, 0, Ne
(c) Ne, He, Ar

Solution
(a) Cl
Metals have low ionisation energy and non-metals have high ionisation energy. Also, across the period, ionisation energy tends to increase. The elements P, Na and Cl belong to the third period. Na - Group 1, P - Group 15 and Cl - Group 17.

(b) Ne
Inert gases have zero electron affinity because of their stable electronic configuration.

(c) He
Ionisation energy decreases with an increase in the atomic size, i.e. it decreases as one moves down a group. Ne, He and Ar are inert gases. He - Period 1, Ne - Period 2 and Ar - Period 3.

(a) An element in period 3 whose electron affinity is zero
(i) Sulphur
(ii) Sodium
(iii) Neon
(iv) Argon

(b) An alkaline earth metal
(ii) potassium
(iii) calcium
(iv) Copper

(c) An element with highest ionization potential
(i) Calcium
(ii) Fluorine
(iii) Helium
(iv) Neon

Solution
(a) (iv) Argon
(b) (iii) Calcium
(c) (iii) Helium

27. The table given below represents the first three periods. Study the table and answer the question as given below
(a) Write the formula of the sulphate of the element with atomic number 13 (b) what type of bonding will be present in the oxide of the element with atomic number 17?
(c) Which feature of the atomic structure accounts for the similarities in the chemical properties of the elements in group 7A of the periodic table?
(d) Name the element which has the highest ionization potential.
(e) How many electrons are present in the valency shell of the element with atomic number 18?
(f) What is the name given to the energy released when an atom in its isolated gaseous state accepts an electron to form an anion?
(g) Fill in the blanks:
The atomic size .......... as we move from left to right across the periods, because the ......... increases but the ............... remains the same

Solution
(a) (Al)2(SO4)3
(b) Covalent bonding
(c) Same number of valence electrons
(d) Helium
(e) 8
(f) Electron affinity
(g) The atomic size Decreases as we move from left to right across the periods, because the
atomic number increases but the number of shells remains the same

28. The electro negativities (according to pauling) of the elements in periodic table are as follows with the elements arranges in alphabetical order:

(a) Arrange the elements in the order in which they occur in the periodic table from left to right.
(The group 1 element first, followed by the group 2 element and so on, up to group 7).
(b) Choose the word or phrase from the brackets which correctly completes each of the following statements:
(i) The element below sodium in the same group would be expected to have a..........
(lower/higher) electro-negativity than sodium and the element above chlorine would
be expected to have a ....... (lower/ higher) ionization potential than chlorine.
(ii) On moving from left to right in a given period, the number of shells (remains the same/ increases/ decreases).
(iii) On moving down a group, the number of valence electrons (remains the same/increases/ decreases).

Solution
(a) Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl
(b) (i) The element below sodium in the same group would be expected to have a Lower (lower/higher) electro-negativity than sodium and the element above chlorine would be expected to have a higher (lower/ higher) ionization potential than chlorine.
(ii) remains the same
(iii) remains the same

29. Parts (a) to (e) refer to changes in the properties of elements on moving from left to right across a period of the periodic table. For each property, choose the correct answer.
(a) The non-metallic character of the elements:
(i) decreases
(ii) increases,
(iii) remains the same,
(iv) depends on the period

(b) The electronegativity:
(i) depends on the number of valence electrons,
(ii) remains the same,
(iii) decreases,
(iv) increases.

(c) The ionization potential:
(i) goes up and down
(ii) decreases
(iii) increases
(iv) remains the same

(d) The atomic size:
(i) decreases,
(ii) increases,
(iii) remains the same,
(iv) sometimes increases and sometimes decreases.

(e) The electron affinity of the elements in groups 1 to 7:
(i) goes up and then down.
(ii) decreases and then increases,
(iii) increases,
(iv) decreases.

Solution
(a) Increases
(b) Increases
(c) Increases
(d) Decreases
(e) Increases

30. The elements of one short period of the periodic table are given below in order from left to right:
Li Be B C O F Ne
(a) To which period do these elements belong?
(b) One element of this period is missing. Which is the missing element and where should it be placed?
(c) Which one of the elements in this period shows the property of catenation?
(d) Place the three elements fluorine, beryllium and nitrogen in the order of increasing electronegativity.
(e) Which one of the above elements belongs to the halogen series?

Solution
(a) Period 2
(b) Nitrogen (N), between carbon and oxygen
(c) Carbon
(d) Be< N<F
(e) Fluorine

31. A group of elements in the periodic table are given below (boron is the first member of the group and thallium is the last).
Boron, Aluminium, Gallium, Indium, Thallium.
Answer the following questions in relation to the above group of elements:
(a) Which element has the most metallic character?
(b) Which element would be expected to have the highest electronegativity?
(c) If the electronic configuration of aluminium is 2, 8, 3, how many electrons are there in the outer shell of thallium
(d) The atomic number of boron is 5. Write chemical formula of the compound formed when boron reacts with chlorine.
(e) Will the elements in the group to the right of this boron group be more metallic or less metallic in character? Justify your answer.

Solution
(a) Thallium has the most metallic character since metallic character increases down the group
(b) Boron has the highest electronegativity since it has the smallest size in the group.
(c) 3. Since all the elements in a group have same number of valence electrons.
(d) BCl3
(e) The elements in the group to the right of boron group would be less metallic as with the decrease in size and increase in atomic number, it will be more difficult for them to lose electrons

32. Select the correct answer from the choice A, B, C, D which are given. Write down only the letter corresponding to the correct answer. With reference to the variation of properties in the periodic table, which of the following is generally true?
A. Atomic size increases from left to right across a period.
B. Ionization potential increases from left to right across a period.
C. Electron affinity increases going down a group.
D. electro-negativity increases going down a group.

Solution
B. Ionization potential increases from left to right across a period.